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Enzymes

Enzymes are biological catalysts. There are optimum temperatures and pH values
at which their activity is greatest. Enzymes are also proteins, and usually
denatured above about 45ºC.

Enzymes are important in respiration. Aerobic respiration releases energy from
glucose.

What are enzymes?
Enzymes are biological catalysts - catalysts are substances…

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pH and enzyme activity



Enzymes and respiration
Enzymes in cells catalyse photosynthesis, protein synthesis - joining amino acids
together, and aerobic respiration.

Aerobic respiration
Respiration is not the same thing as breathing. That is more properly called ventilation.
Instead, respiration is a chemical process in which energy is released from…

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Enzymes are important in digestion. Digestion is the breakdown of carbohydrates,
proteins and fats into small soluble substances that can be absorbed into the
blood.
Lipases and proteases are used in biological detergents, and enzymes are used in
the manufacture of food and drink.

The digestive system
Digestion is the…

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Enzymes and digestion
The enzymes involved in respiration, photosynthesis and protein synthesis work inside
cells. Other enzymes are produced by specialised cells and released from them; the
digestive enzymes are like this. They pass out into the gut, where they catalyse the
breakdown of food molecules.

Different enzymes
Different enzymes…

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lipase pancreas, small intestine


Summary
Overall, this means that:
Amylase catalyses the breakdown of starch into sugars in the mouth and small intestine.
Proteases catalyse the breakdown of proteins into amino acids in the stomach and small
intestine.
Lipases catalyse the breakdown of fats and oils into fatty acids and…

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Enzymes in industry
Enzyme names
The names of the different types of enzymes usually end in the letters -ase. Three of the
most common enzymes with their chemical actions are:
lipase - breaks down fats
protease - breaks down proteins
carbohydrase - breaks down carbohydrates

Enzyme uses
Enzymes allow certain…

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