AQA Biology additional and further notes

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  • Created on: 12-04-11 13:10
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Emily Wilkes
BIOLOGY (ADDITIONAL AND FURTHER)
Cells:
Mitochondria: Energy is released from glucose during
respiration.
Ribosomes: Where protein synthesis takes place.
Kidneys:
Urea, mineral ions, water and glucose are filtered out.
All the glucose, and the necessary amount of water and
mineral ions are reabsorbed into the blood stream.
This leaves all the urea, and some mineral ions and water
which forms urine. This is passed into the bladder until it is
expelled from the body.
Concentration of urine is controlled by ADH, which is secreted by
the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus monitors the
concentration of blood plasma, and causes the pituitary gland to
release ADH when levels of water are low. The ADH travels to the
kidneys in the blood stream.
ADH causes kidneys to re-absorb more water. If blood plasma is
more dilute, less ADH will be released so the kidneys will
re-absorb less water into the blood stream.
AKA: tubule
Renal artery
Renal vein
Ureter

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Emily Wilkes
Theory of biogenesis:
The theory of biogenesis states that living things can only arise
from living things and cannot be spontaneously generated.
Plants:
There are two main transport systems, found in vascular bundles
and separated by cambium cells which grow into new xylem and
phloem.
Xylem have thick, strong walls and carry water and mineral
ions.
Phloem are living cells, have thin walls, and carry sugars
from the leaves around the plant.…read more

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Emily Wilkes
Lipids Fatty acids + Glycerol
Using enzymes:
Proteases and lipases are used in biological detergents to
break down fat or protein caused stains.
Proteases are used to pre-digest baby food.
Carbohydrases are used to convert starch into glucose for
cheap sweetener production.
Isomerase can be used to convert glucose into fructose
(same energy content, but sweeter so less used).…read more

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