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Plant cells

Cell wall ­ made of cellulose, strengthens the cell.
Vacuole ­ filled with cell sap, helps to support the cell.
Cytoplasm ­ where most chemical reactions in the cell takes place.
Nucleus ­ controls what the cell does and contains genetic information.
Ribosomes ­ where…

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Specialized cells

Root hair cells ­ have tiny hair like structure, which increases the
surface area of the cell enabling it to absorb water and ions more

Palisade cells ­ are column shaped cells on the upper surface of a leaf.
They are packed with chloroplasts for photosynthesis.


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Carbon dioxide diffused from the air
Water from the soil
Chlorophyll in the leaves
Two things are produced ­
Glucose ­ for biomass and energy
Oxygen ­ released into the atmosphere

Light energy is absorbed by green chlorophyll found in chloroplasts.
Some of the glucose produced goes straight to provide…

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The sun is the source of energy for all living organisms.
In green plants photosynthesis captures solar energy, which is then stored in
the substances, which make up the cells of the plant. It is then passed onto

organisms, which then eat the plant. The transfer of energy can be…

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Transfer of energy and biomass

Biomass and energy are lost at every stage of a food chain because materials
and energy are lost in an organisms waste. Energy is also released through
respiration and lost as heat energy.
More heat energy is lost in warm-blooded animals whose bodies must be…

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Living things remove materials from the environment for growth and other
processes but when they die or excrete waste these materials are returned to
the environment.
They are broken down by then microorganisms. This decay process releases
substances substances used by plants for growth.
Microorganisms digest materials faster in warm,…

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Maintain a constant temperature in colder surroundings.
Make proteins in plants from amino acids.

Aerobic respiration

Aerobic respiration releases energy through the break down of glucose
molecules, by combining them with oxygen inside living cells (mostly takes
place in the mitochondria).
Glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energy…

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It emulsifies fats, meaning it breaks down large drops of fats into small
droplets to increase the surface area, which enables the lipase enzyme
to work much faster.

Use of enzymes in the home and industry

Some microorganisms produce enzymes, which can be used to out benefit.
At home biological…

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helps to cool the body. More water is lost when it is hot, and more water has to
be taken by food and drink to balance this.

Too Cold Too Hot

A - Hair muscles pull hairs on D - Hair muscles relax. Hairs
end. lie flat so heat can…

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Of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in the human body cells, one pair is the sex
In females, these are identical and are called X chromosomes.
In males, one is much shorter than the other. The shorter one is called
the Y chromosome and the longer one is called…


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