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Fractional Distillation of Crude
Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons.
Petroleum is a mixture consisting mainly
of alkane hydrocarbons.
Long chain hydrocarbons can be cracked
through fractional distillation.…read more

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Fractional Distillation Column
Small fractions have a
low boiling point so
only condense at the
top of the column,
whereas large, heavy
fractions condense at
the bottom. Boiling
point depends on
chain length.
Q. Why do we crack
long chain
A. There is more
demand for smaller
fractions.…read more

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Thermal Cracking
High pressure
High temperature 900°
Produces Alkenes which can
be made into polymers and
plastics.…read more

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Catalytic Cracking
Slight pressure
High temperature
Presence of zeolite or
alumino silicate catalyst
Produces motor fuels and
aromatic hydrocarbons.…read more

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Complete Combustion
With excess oxygen, the whole hydrocarbon can
combust to produce carbon dioxide and water:
C6H14 + 9½O2 6CO2 +7H2O
Combustion of hydrocarbons containing sulphur
produces SO2 which causes air pollution. Sulphur
dioxide can be removed from flue gases using
calcium oxide:
SO2 + CaCO3 CaSO4 +CO2
However CO2 is also a pollutant so which is better?…read more

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