AQA AS psychology- Memory full revision with key studies

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  • Created on: 28-10-12 19:37
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The Multi Store Model of Memory
The multi store model of memory is a structural
model that consists of 3 separate stores ­
sensory memory, short term memory and long
term memory, in which the STM and LTM are
unitary stores. Information moves from store
to store in a linear fashion. Information enters
the system from the environment and first
registers on the sensory memory, there it is
held for a few seconds, when attention is
given to that information it can then enter the
short term memory. The STM has a limited
capacity and information is acoustically
encoded. Rehearsal is needed for information to move to the LTM normally elaborative rehearsal once there
it can stay for a lifetime and is semantically encoded. Information is lost by displacement in the STM due to
limited capacity whereas in the LTM it is lost by inference or brain damage.
Short term memory= a temporary storage system where small amounts of information can be
held for brief periods of time. It is fragile and information is easily lost
Long term memory= a permanent store where limitless amounts of information can be held
for very long periods of time

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Short term and long term memory
Capacity Duration Encoding Forgetting
STM 7+/- 2 times Very limited Acoustically Displacement
LTM Unlimited Limitless Semantically Interference
Displacement= A type of forgetting where information that is currently in the STM is pushed
out before it can enter the LTM by oncoming new information
Interference= a type of forgetting where current information stored in the LTM is confused
with similar information
GLANZER AND CUNITZ- separate stores
Aim: To provide evidence for the STM and LTM being separate stores
Procedure: PPs…read more

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Capacity: The amount of information that can be held in the memory at any one time
JACOBS DIGIT SPAN TECHNIQUE- Capacity of STM
Digit span technique: is a way of measuring the capacity of the STM, PPs repeat
back a list of digits using serial recall, the number of the digit string gradually increases until pps are no
longer able to recall the digits correctly
Aim: To investigate how much the STM can hold
Procedure: PPs were read a list of words and number and…read more

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Duration: The amount of time information can be held for
Peterson and Peterson - Duration of STM
Aim: To test how long items can stay in the STM when rehearsal is prevented
Procedure: PPs were presented with a constanat trigram, they were then asked to recall as many
trigrams as possible whilst counting back from a specidifed number, this was doen to prevent rehearsal.
The intervals were of 3,6,9,12,15,18.…read more

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Encoding: the way information is changed in order to be stored in the
memory
Conrad- Encoding in the STM
Aim: was to investigate how information is encoded in the STM
Procedure: PPs were presented with a sequence of 6 consonants with rapid exposures for each, they
were then asked to recall the letters in order of presentation, there were two conditions
Condition 1: Acoustically similar letters such as P, D, T
Condition 2: Acoustically dissimilar words such as Y, P, X
Findings: PPs found it…read more

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Evaluation of the multi store model of memory
Was supported by studies such as glanzer and cunitz who used a serial position curve, in which words at
a beginning of a list were easily remembered because they were rehearsed so enetered the LTM
(primacy effect) similarly words towards the end of the list were easily rmemebred because they
were also rehearsed a bit and so entered the STM (recency effect), showing the STM and LTM are
unitary stores
The case study of HM also supported…read more

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There is then the visual spatial sketchpad (inner eye) it has a limited capacity and is a tempoary memory
system which holds visual or spatial information. It consists of the visual cache which acts as a passive
visual store and is linked to the inner scribe which is an active rehearsal mechanism.…read more

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Used repeated measure design the participant variables were eliminated therefore can condlude
that the results were true
Baddley- Evidence for the visuo spatial sketchpad
Aim: To provide evidence for the existence for the visuo spatial sketchpad
Procedure: PPs had to track a spot of light with a pointer whilst imagining an
angular letter like T, E, F.…read more

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Evaluation of the Working model memory
The model is supported by observations such as its easier to do two tasks that are different (visual and
verbal) than doing two tasks that are similar because they use different components of the STM the
visuo spatial sketchpad or the phonological loop
Explains and is supported by the word length effect because people cope better with shorter words
rather than long words so in the working memory model this can show that this is due to the limited…read more

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