AQA AS Geography Population: How Migration Affects a Rural Area

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Population Change in Rural Cornwall
Every year, over 4 million tourists visit Cornwall for its spectacular coastal scenery and
Cornwall is a county in crisis ­ in desperate need of regeneration.
Low wages, a declining rural economy, and lack of services and employment opportunities
contribute to this.
Cornwall has no major cities so it has no dominant population centre to attract outside
investment to kick-start the local economy.
Cornwall's Population
Cornwall has the UK's fastest-growing population.
There are three main trends affecting this:
Natural decrease
Cornwall attracts many retired people ­ creating an age imbalance
They come for a more relaxed and higher quality of life
With an ageing population, Cornwall has a higher death rate than the rest of the UK
However, life expectancy is above the UK average
High inward migration
There is an inward migration of other age groups, particularly those aged 50-59 who
are preparing for retirement
Many families are also moving to the south-west
A survey from Cornwall estimated that half of all students in Cornish secondary
schools had not been born in Cornwall
Families seek a better quality of life
Many purchase a flat in a city and have their main home in Cornwall
Out migration
With declining number of jobs over half of those aged 16-18 are expected to leave
Known as Cornwall's `brain drain'
Many young people go to university and stay away permanently

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These three trends have combined to increase Cornwall's dependency ratio.
The reduced size of the working population, compared with dependent age groups, leaves
the county with reduced economic potential.
The emigration of young people, in exchange for older age groups on fixed pensions, creates
a high proportion of people on low incomes.
A quarter of pensioners in rural areas in the UK have low incomes, supplemented by
Economic Deprivation in Cornwall
Cornwall has the lowest average annual income per person in England and Wales.…read more

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Cornwall's Housing Problem
Another reason why young people leave Cornwall is because so much of the housing is
Young people and low-income earners are priced out of the housing market, because they
have to compete with older migrants into the country, who are often cash-rich.
The need for social housing is increasing, as more and more local people are unable to buy
Two-thirds of those who do not own a home cannot afford one.…read more


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