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Diseases of Poverty
The Global Distribution of Poverty




Poverty The state of having little or no money or no material possessions
and having no access to basic necessities



Famine A severe shortage of food resulting in widespread hunger,
malnutrition, starvation and death



Malnutrition A dietary deficiency
The quantity of calories…

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Famine

Famine is a severe shortage of food resulting in widespread hunger,
malnutrition, starvation and death.



Most famines result from a combination of natural events and human mismanagement.

Some authorities refer to famine as a decline in the access to food rather than there not
being enough food.

Famines are…

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Causes of Famine



Drought Lack of rainfall causes soil and groundwater
sources to decline, which ultimately leads to
a reduction in the supply of water.
The soil moisture will not meet the needs of
particular plants and agriculture crops,
creating serious problems for areas that
depend on farming, both arable…

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Solutions to Famine
Famine relief is a short-term aid that takes the form of distributing food.

It is usually carried out by a combination of non-governmental organisations e.g. Oxfam,
Red Cross and Save the Children and government.

Much of this aid is temporary in nature. It is usually given with…

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Malnourishment

Malnutrition includes:

Having too much food = over-nutrition
Not having enough food = under-nutrition


Over-nutrition
Over the years there has been an emergence of a global obesity pandemic.

The combination of a big increase in the global consumption of energy-dense meals - which are
high in fat and protein…

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Case Study: Mexico
In 1989, fewer than 10% of Mexican adults were considered to be overweight.

But, by 2008, that figure had risen to 71% of women and 66% of men.

Mexican children are also following the trend, with more than 25% now thought to be
overweight ­ an increase…

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Under-nutrition
In 2009, the UN's Food and Agricultural Organisation identified that about 1.02 billion people were
suffering from under-nutrition worldwide.

The highest proportion of undernourished people ­ as a percentage of the population ­ lives in sub-
Saharan Africa.

However, in actual number terms, most hungry people live in Asia…

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The Cycle of Deprivation
Many people in Ethiopia are subsistence farmers - they only grow enough for their own
families and do not sell any.

Many people are not able to buy their own food when their crops fail as they have no
income.

Over 60% of the population live…

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Breaking the poverty Cycle:


Improvements in farming productivity

Development of irrigation so it is affordable and manageable by people in rural
communities


Improve marketing so that food can be distributed efficiently to increase farmers'
income and to improve food security

Incentives to encourage farmers to invest in surpluses in improving…

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Case Study: Ethiopia
In 2009, millions of Ethiopians faced the threat of undernourishment ­ and possibly
starvation ­ as the country faced its worst food crisis for decades.

The number of Ethiopians who needed emergency food aid rose steadily throughout the
year ­ from 4.9 million in January to 5.3…

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