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Total Fertility Rates and Ageing Populations

Why are there variations in fertility rates?

Factor Reason Case Study
Urban Revolution More consumerism: more
material possessions so less
money for children.

Women try to advance their
careers before having
Death Rates (IMR) Infant mortality means thatSubSaharan Africa:
women need to have…

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World trends in fertility rates

The Northern Hemisphere has the lowest fertility rates.
Europe has the lowest fertility rates in the world
Africa ­ particularly subSaharan ­ has the highest fertility rates

Ageing Population in the EU

Higher pay for women with children
Flexible working hours for both parents…

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Implications of an ageing population

Factor Effect
Costs Health care costs will rise BUT people are
getting healthier
Economy Tourism and leisure industries will thrive
the `grey pound', a specific target group of
older people

Taxes and National Insurance will be
dedicated to pensions: less spending in other


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Management of an ageing population (UK)

Raise the retirement age Currently 65 for males and 60 for females
but this will rise to 68 for everyone by 2046
Encourage immigration 80% of immigrants from the EU are under
34 years old. Immigrants contribute to the
birth rate
Pronatalist policies…


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