AQA AS Geography: Fertility rates and ageing populations (including management)

Information including case studies on fertility rates and effects of ageing population as well as their management

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Total Fertility Rates and Ageing Populations
Why are there variations in fertility rates?
Factor Reason Case Study
Urban Revolution More consumerism: more
material possessions so less
money for children.
Women try to advance their
careers before having
Death Rates (IMR) Infant mortality means thatSubSaharan Africa:
women need to have lots of Women must have 8 ­ 9
children to ensure a survivingchildren to have 95% chance
son to take over land and of having a surviving son.
care for its parents when
they become elderly
Education Educated women are Kerala, India: 93% Literacy,
deciding to advance their 2.3 Fertility
careers before having
children Gujarat, India: 59%
Literacy, 4.0 Fertility
If women are educated
about contraception and
birth control, they are less
likely to have as many
Religion Islam and Catholicism in Italy: Widely Catholic, TFR
particular teach that using 1.3
birth control is wrong,
however religious adherence
decreases with the level of
Tradition Some traditions see a large Vietnam: 92% of women
number of children as a with 2 children did not want
representation of status. another.
Women are seen solely as
child bearers and are under Nigeria: 4% of women with
pressure to have many 2 children did not want
children. another
Government Government policies, China (anti): Once Child
whether anti or pro natalist Policy
have impacts on birth rates.
Germany (Pro): Cash

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World trends in fertility rates
The Northern Hemisphere has the lowest fertility rates.…read more

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Implications of an ageing population
Factor Effect
Costs Health care costs will rise BUT people are
getting healthier
Economy Tourism and leisure industries will thrive
the `grey pound', a specific target group of
older people
Taxes and National Insurance will be
dedicated to pensions: less spending in other
areas.…read more

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Management of an ageing population (UK)
Raise the retirement age Currently 65 for males and 60 for females
but this will rise to 68 for everyone by 2046
Encourage immigration 80% of immigrants from the EU are under
34 years old. Immigrants contribute to the
birth rate
Pronatalist policies
Encourage people to start private pensions Lower taxes on private pensions. This will
reduce dependency on state pensions.…read more


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