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Sea Level Changes
World sea level changes over time as a result of two major influences:

Eustatic fall
Isostatic uplift

Eustatic Isostatic
Eustatic sea level change is caused by a Isostatic sea level change is caused by
change in the volume of water in the sea, vertical movements of the…

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A simple sequence of sea level changes may be summarised as follows:

Formation of glaciers and ice sheets produces a Eustatic fall in sea level and a
lowering of the world sea level

Continued growth of ice sheets depresses the land surface under the ice and
produces a relative Isostatic…

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Impacts of Sea Level Rise

More frequent and more severe coastal flooding
Flooding of low-lying areas has increased with sea level rise and it will increase more with
further rises.

For example: at the beginning of the 20th century St Mark's Square in Venice flooded less
than 10 times per…

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Submergent Features
When sea level rises relative to the coast, the sea submerges the existing coastline.

This creates different landforms.

Rias are usually created by the flooding of a river valley
where a river meets the ocean.

Rias have a gentle long and cross-profile.

They're wide and deep at…

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Emergent Features
When sea level falls relative to the coast, new coastline emerges from the sea.

This creates different landforms.

Raised Beaches
Raised beaches are formed when the fall in sea level exposes wave-cut platforms and their

Over time, beach sediment becomes vegetated and develops into soil.

Relict Cliffs…


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