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Energetics
1) An enthalpy change is a change in energy at constant pressure (i.e. in normal `open container' conditions where
there is no change in pressure during the reaction).
2) A positive enthalpy (H) signifies an endothermic reaction, whereas a negative enthalpy will be given by an
exothermic reaction.
3)…

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Reaction Kinetics And Equilibria
1) The rate of a reaction can be explained using collision theory:
a) The molecules must have a minimum amount of energy to start the reaction ­ the activation energy (EA).
b) The molecules must approach each other at the correct angle and alignment.
c) Molecules…

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9) A reversible reaction is one that goes in both directions ­ Reactants Products. `Left to right' is the forward
reaction, and `right to left' is the reverse (or backward) reaction.
10) As a reversible reaction takes place, the rate of the forward reaction decreases as the reactants are used…

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Redox Reactions
1) A redox reaction is one in which reduction and oxidation occur at the same time (you cannot get one without the
other):
a. Reduction involves a gain of electrons and a decrease in oxidation state.
b. Oxidation involves a loss of electrons and an increase in oxidation…

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Group VII ­ The Halogens
1) The halogens are the most reactive non-metal group, with names ending in ­ine. These will form halide ions, with
names ending in ­ide.
2) The electronegativity decreases down the group:
a) The nuclear charge increases, which should provide a greater attraction for electrons.
b)…

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13) Chlorine will react with water to produce hydrochloric acid and chloric (I) acid. This is a disproportionation
reaction, as the chlorine is simultaneously reduced and oxidised:
Cl2 (aq) + H2O (l) HCl (aq) + HOCl (aq)
14) Chloric (I) acid will firstly turn damp litmus paper red, as it…

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Extraction Of Metals
1) The following ores are used to extract metals:
a) Haematite ­ contains Fe2O3.
b) Magnetite ­ contains Fe3O4.
c) Iron pyrites ­ contain FeS2.
d) Bauxite ­ contains Al2O3.
e) Rutile ­ contains TiO2.
f) Ilmenite ­ contains FeTiO3.
2) Iron is extracted from its ore…

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c) Electrolysis ­ produces a very pure product, but is very expensive in terms of running costs.
11) Uses of the extracted metals:
a) Iron ­ very common and cheap, widely used.
b) Aluminium ­ cooking foil, drinks cans, aeroplane parts etc.
c) Titanium ­ alloys in aircraft, missiles and…

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