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Atomic Structure

Fundamental Particles
Protons have a relative charge of 1+ and a relative mass of 1.
Electrons have a relative charge of 1- and a relative mass of 1/1836.
Neutrons have a relative charge of 0 and a relative mass of 1.

The mass number of an atom is…

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Simple Mass Spectra
Can be used to show us the relative abundance of an atom/ion in a sample- this is along the y-axis.
Can tell us the m/z ratio of elements- this is along the x-axis.
To find out the Ar we can just read off the x-axis (as long…

Page 3

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Aufbau Principle- Electrons fill energy levels in order of increasing energy. This means that the 1st energy
level fills first as it has the lowest amount of energy.
Pauli Exclusion- Electrons fill in orbitals. Each orbital can only hold a maximum of 2 electrons and these fill with
opposite spins.…

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o In period 3 there are abrupt drops between Mg and Al and between P and S, this offers us evidence for
o The abrupt drop between Mg and Al is because Mg is (Ne) 3s2 and Al is (Ne) 3s2 3p1. This means that because
Al has the…




Concise and easy to pick out key points :)

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