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Atomic Structure

Fundamental Particles
Protons have a relative charge of 1+ and a relative mass of 1.
Electrons have a relative charge of 1- and a relative mass of 1/1836.
Neutrons have a relative charge of 0 and a relative mass of 1.

The mass number of an atom is…

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Simple Mass Spectra
Can be used to show us the relative abundance of an atom/ion in a sample- this is along the y-axis.
Can tell us the m/z ratio of elements- this is along the x-axis.
To find out the Ar we can just read off the x-axis (as long…

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Aufbau Principle- Electrons fill energy levels in order of increasing energy. This means that the 1st energy
level fills first as it has the lowest amount of energy.
Pauli Exclusion- Electrons fill in orbitals. Each orbital can only hold a maximum of 2 electrons and these fill with
opposite spins.…

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o In period 3 there are abrupt drops between Mg and Al and between P and S, this offers us evidence for
sub-levels.
o The abrupt drop between Mg and Al is because Mg is (Ne) 3s2 and Al is (Ne) 3s2 3p1. This means that because
Al has the…

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Concise and easy to pick out key points :)

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