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Chapter 31: using the marketing mix: Promotional mix
Part of the marketing mix
Designed to inform customers and persuade them to buy it
Promotional objectives include increasing sales, profits and the awareness of
Aims to get the attention of the customer so they can be informed or persuaded
about the product
Elements of the promotional mix
Public Relations: "Gaining favourable publicity through media" e.g. if Jeremy
Clarkson can be persuaded to drive a new Porsche on television, it can help
Porsche to sell more cars. Successful PR relies on the reaction of the media to
the story being put forward by the firm. Unreliable but extremely cost effective
Branding: "The process of differentiating a product or service from its
competitors through the name, sign, symbol, design or slogan linked to that
product or service" E.g. customers are more likely to buy CocaCola than Panda
Cola. If one product in a brand gains a bad reputation, it can effectively affect
customers' loyalty to all the products with the same brand identity
Merchandising: "Attempts to persuade consumers to take action at the point of
sale" E.g. Tic Tac produces displays that that persuade consumers to buy at the
point of sale. Both manufacturers and retailers maximise sales by using
psychological research, e.g. colourful displays of fruit are placed by the entrances
of supermarkets. Only effective if customers are buying something to get to PoS
Sales Promotions: "Shortterm incentives used to persuade consumers to buy a
particular product" E.g. BOGOF, free offers, coupons, get 3 for the price of 2 etc.
B2B offering credit terms. Often only provide a shortterm boost and in many
cases they allow customers to purchase more cheaply a product that they would
have bought anyway.
Direct Selling: "The process of communicating directly to the individual
consumer through an appropriate form of communication" E.g. direct mail,
telephone, doortodoor drops and personal selling. In general, direct selling
(particularly telephone contact) is often seen by consumers as an invasion of
privacy so business' must use it with caution.
Television Memorable, moving images and sound, ideal for
massmarket, costs are very high BUT considering how many people it
reaches, the CPT is low.
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Radio Flexible, cheaper, can be niche or mass market.
Cinema Can be targeted to specific audiences can promote activities
to do after the cinema like restaurants etc, very expensive.
National Newspapers Read by millions of people daily.
Posters Highly flexible, mass market or niche market, detail can be
provided if in a place where people will be waiting such as the London
Magazines Focus audience, colour and high quality print enhances