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Proteins are very large molecules and each organism contains them however, they differ from
species to species.

The shape of any one type of protein molecule differs from that of all other types of proteins.
Proteins are the most important molecules to life.

One group of proteins, enzymes, is…

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The Structure of an Amino Acid
Amino acids are the basic monomer units which combine to make up a polymer called a
polypeptide. Polypeptides can be combined to form proteins. About 100 amino acids have been
identified, of which 20 occur naturally in proteins.

Every amino acid has a central…

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The formation of a peptide bond
Amino acid monomers can combine to form a diapeptide.

The process is called a condensation reaction because it is the removal of a water

The water is made by combining an ­OH from the carboxyl group of one amino acid, with
an ­H…

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The Primary Structure of Proteins
Through a series of condensation reactions, many amino acid monomers can be joined
together in a process called polymerisation.

The resulting chain of many hundreds of amino acids is called a polypeptide.

The sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain forms the primary structure…

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Tertiary Structure of Proteins
The -helices of the secondary protein structure can be twisted and folded even more
to give the complex 3-D structure of each protein. This is known as the tertiary structure.
This structure is maintained by a number of different bonds, including:

Disulfide bonds: fairly strong and…

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Protein Shape and Function
Proteins perform many different roles in living organisms.

Their roles depend on their molecular shape, which can be of two basic types:

- Fibrous proteins such as collagen have structural functions
- Globular proteins such as enzymes and haemoglobin, carry out metabolic functions

It is the…


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