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1. Explain why the solution used was
(i) ice-cold

Reduce/prevent enzyme activity

(ii)isotonic.

Prevents osmosis / no (net) movement of water;
So organelle/named organelle does not burst/shrivel

2. People with mitochondrial disease have mitochondria that do not function properly.
Some people with mitochondrial disease can only exercise for a short…

Page 2

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8. Destruction of phagocytes (lines 4­5) causes the lungs to be more susceptible to
infections. Explain why

Phagocytes engulf/ingest pathogens/microorganisms/bacteria/viruses
Phagocytes destroy pathogens/microorganisms/bacteria/viruses
Lung diseases are caused by pathogens/microorganisms/bacteria/viruses

9. The reduced elasticity of the lungs (lines 6­7) causes breathing difficulty. Explain how?

Alveoli/lungs will not inflate/deflate fully/reduced lung capacity;…

Page 3

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14. Explain why the scientists

3 (d) (i) homogenised the tissue
Breaks open cells / disrupts cell membrane / releases cell contents / releases organelles /
break up cells;


3 (d) (ii) filtered the resulting suspension
Removes (cell) debris / complete cells / tissue;


3 (d) (iii) kept the suspension…

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Active transport requires energy / ATP;
7 Ref. to Na+ / glucose co-transport;
18. Describe and explain how the lungs are adapted to allow rapid exchange of oxygen
between air in the alveoli and blood in the capillaries around them.

Many alveoli / alveoli walls folded provide a large
surface…

Page 5

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23. Explain how atheroma can lead to a heart attack

1. Coronary artery / vessel is blocked/narrows;
2. Restricts oxygen supply to heart muscle / cells / tissue;
3. Prevents respiration / ATP production / or (heart) muscle / tissues/cells die;

24. After an infection with chlamydia, cells of the…

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