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3.1.2 Digestive System

The Digestive System
Salivary Glands
The salivary glands in the mouth contain amylase, mucus and mineral salts. The mucus lubricates the food
whilst the amylase breaks down starch into maltose.
Oesophagus
Muscle contractions called peristalsis moves the food down and mucus lubricates the food.
Stomach
The sphincter…

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Secondary- Hydrogen bonds form between amino acids in a chain and this causes it to coil into an helix
and/or a pleated sheet. The bonds form in the amino group and carboxyl group in the polypeptide
backbone.
Tertiary- More hydrogen bonds form and the structure coils/ folds even further. If…

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When temperature increases the rate of enzyme reaction increases (number of product molecules
formed).
This happens up to a certain point which is the optimum temperature.
This is because the enzymes gain kinetic energy and move faster. This means there are more successful
collisions and in turn more substrate and…

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This means that they don't block the active site but they do change the shape of it.
As a result the substrate can't fit on and form the enzyme-substrate complex. This in turn means that the
rate of reaction decreases.




An increase in inhibitors would decrease reaction heavily as all…

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Amylose: Involves 1-4 glycosidic bonds and the h bonds cause the chain to spiral. It is a structural
carbohydrate.
Amylopectin: Involves 1-6 glycosidic bonding as well. This means branches are formed with each
glucose. It can be digested quicker because the enzyme amylase has more ends that it can bind…

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thanks. really useful

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