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What are proteins?

Proteins are made when amino acids joining together to form polypeptides. These polypeptides are joined together
by peptide bonds. Almost like glycosidic bonds except with amino acids as opposed to glucose. There are around 20
different amino acids but since they can be joined in any…

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Secondary- Hydrogen bonds form between amino acids in a chain and this causes it to coil into
an helix and/or a pleated sheet. The bonds form in the amino group and carboxyl group in
the polypeptide backbone.

Tertiary- More hydrogen bonds form and the structure coils/ folds even further. If…

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How do disaccharides form?

Disaccharides form when two monosaccharides are joined together by a glycosidic bond. This is a condensation
reaction as a molecule of water is released. The opposite of a condensation reaction is when water is added to
reform the two separate molecules. This is called hydrolysis. 1-4…

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What is Lactose Intolerance?

This is caused by the fact that a human body may not produce enough lactase enzymes to break down the
disaccharide: Lactose. As a result the undigested lactose is fermented by bacteria. This can cause intestinal
discomfort, such as: cramps, excessive flatulence and diarrhoea. It's very…


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