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The lungs and lung disease
All aerobic organisms need a constant supply of oxygen to release ATP during respiration. Build ups
of CO2 need to be removed as they could be dangerous if left in the body.
In mammals a large volume of oxygen is needed because they have high…

Page 2

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This is an active process and requires energy.

The internal intercostal muscles relax the external intercostal muscles contract.
The ribs are pulled upwards and outwards increasing the volume of the thorax
The diaphragm contracts, causing it to flatten which also increases volume of the thorax.
The increased volume…

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Once TB bacteria have entered the lung they:

1. Multiply in the lung tissues
2. This causes inflammation and white blood cells kill off most of the bacteria
3. The infected tissue within the tubercles dies which damages the exchange surface, causing
tidal volume to be decreased. This is…

Page 4

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Elastin helps the alveoli return to their normal shape after inspiration and expiration.
The alveoli cannot recoil, so the lungs tidal volume is decreased.
This causes shortness of breath and wheezing.


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