AQA Applied exercise physiology CHAPTER 4 full notes

These are just my notes that I've typed up from the the AQA text book, hope they're useful!! Theres not much out there for AS Physical Education.

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  • Created on: 14-01-15 18:18
Preview of AQA Applied exercise physiology CHAPTER 4 full notes

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Cardiac function and the transport of gases in the blood
Key terms Definition
Aerobic Exercise that is sub-maximal and requires
exercise oxygen
Together the heart, blood vessels and blood form the cardiovascular system, and this works in
conjunction with the respiratory system to maintain a constant supply of oxygen to the muscles
both at rest and during exercise.
The structure of the heart
(See sheet 1 for structure of heart)
Left hand side - pumps oxygen-rich blood around body
Right hand side - pumps blood low in oxygen around to the lungs to be re-oxygenated
Septum enables two pumps to function separately - thus enabling the heart to be dual
The heart requires its own blood supply.
1. Deoxygenated blood returns from body to right atrium via superior and inferior vena cava.
2. At the same time, oxygen rich blood returns to right atrium from lungs via pulmonary
3. Blood enters ventricles via valves. Right=Tricuspid valve Left=Bicuspid valve The valves
ensure blood flows in one direction.
4. When both ventricles contract the blood flows through semi-lunar valves (prevent
backflow of blood)
5. The deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle flows into the pulmonary artery and
travels to the lungs.
6. The oxygenated blood from the left ventricle flows in the aorta and transports the blood
around the body.
The left side of the heart is responsible for pumping the blood around the whole body. The wall of
cardiac tissue (myocardium) surrounding left ventricle is much thicker.
The conduction system of the heart
Cardiac tissue is extremely specialised - It is myogenic - it can generate its own electrical
impulses and does not require stimulation from the brain.
The cardiac tissues also possesses its own network of nerves.

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These together ensure an efficient flow of blood through the heart and around the body
Key terms Definition
Myocardium Cardiac muscle that makes up the heart
Myogenic The ability of the heart to produce its own
The cardiac cycle
Refers to the mechanical and electrical events during one heartbeat.
At rest, one heartbeat will occur every 0.8 seconds and 72 times per minute.
1.…read more

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The control of the heart rate
During exercise, heart rate must increase and must send more impulses more rapidly in order to
meet the body's demand for oxygen. It is able to do this through two regulatory mechanisms:
neural control mechanism
hormonal control mechanism
The cardiac control centre (CCC) is situated in the medulla oblongata. It forms part of the
autonomic nervous system. The CCC is under involuntary control and made up of two
1. Sympathetic nervous system - responsible for increasing heart rate.…read more

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Adrenaline is the hormone responsible for increasing heart rate prior to a competition. It
is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream - it prepares the body for exercise
by increasing heart rate and strength of ventricular contraction.
During exercise, adrenaline can aid the body's response:
1. increasing heart rate of respiration
2. constricting blood vessels - increases blood pressure (help blood reach active
3. increasing blood glucose levels - by stimulation breakdown of glycogen in liver -
helps fuel muscular contraction.…read more

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Stroke Heart
Volume rate
Untrained 5 70ml 72bpm
Trained 5 80ml 60bpm
-Measured by pulse rate
Cardiac output
Volume of blood ejected by heart per minute and measured in litres per minute dm^3
Cardiac output (Q) = Stroke volume (SV) X Heart rate (HR)
Relationship shows if there is an increase in either.. then cardiac output will increase.…read more

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Increased venous return- volume of blood that returns from the body to right side of
heart. Venus return increases during exercise sue to the muscle pump where skeletal
muscles squeeze blood back towards the heart.
Frank-starling mechanism (Starling's law)- mechanism suggests that when the heart
ventricles stretch more, they can contract with greater force and pump more blood out of
heart.…read more

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Vessels of circulation
There are different types of blood vessel:
Arteries and arterioles
Veins and venules
Arteries and arterioles
-Vessels that carry blood away from heart, supplying body tissues with oxygenated blood.…read more

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Contains a thin layer of involuntary muscle - when stimulated helps return blood to heart.
Venus return is aided by pocket valves within veins - ensure blood flows in only one
Key Terms Definition
Vasoconstrict Reduction in diameter of artery and arteriole
walls - result in increased blood pressure -
helps speed flow of blood around body.
Vasodilate Increase in diameter of artery and arteriole
walls - lead to decrease in pressure.
Vascular shunt Redistribution of blood around the body e.g.
working muscles.…read more

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Gravity - Assists the flow of blood from the upper extremities of the body into the superior
vena cava right atrium
These are essential in maintaining cardiac output during exercise. A cool down after exercise can
maintain venous return - prevent 'pooling' of blood in veins.
Redistribution of blood during exercise
As we exercise the distribution of blood changes.
-Through vasomotor control and action of sympathetic nerves, blood can be diverted away from
non-essential tissues + organs and redirected to active ones.…read more

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Vasomotor control is involuntary and occurs immediately - ensuring that areas in most need
receive the necessary amount of blood and nutrients.
Blood pressure and blood velocity
-Blood pressure is the driving force that moves the blood through circulatory systems, 'the force
exerted by the blood on the inside walls of the blood vessels'.
There are two main determining factors of blood pressure:
blood flow (cardiac output)
peripheral resistance (resistance offered to the flow of blood due to friction).…read more


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