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Slide 1

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P2 Topics
1. forces and their effects
2. kinetic energy
3. electricity
4. atoms and radiation
5. life cycles of stars…read more

Slide 2

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Forces and their effects
· Forces can cause changes to the shape or motion of an object.
Objects can move in a straight line at a constant speed. They can
also change their speed and / or direction (accelerate or
decelerate). Graphs can help us to describe the movement of an
object. These may be distance-time graphs or velocity-time
· Candidates should use their skills, knowledge and understanding
· interpret data from tables and graphs relating to speed, velocity
and acceleration
· evaluate the effects of alcohol and drugs on stopping distances
· evaluate how the shape and power of a vehicle can be altered to
increase the vehicle's top speed
· draw and interpret velocity-time graphs for objects that reach
terminal velocity, including a consideration of the forces acting on
the object.…read more

Slide 3

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Kinetic energy
· When an object speeds up or slows down, its
kinetic energy increases or decreases. The forces
which cause the change in speed do so by doing
work. The momentum of an object is the product
of the object's mass and velocity.
· Candidates should use their skills, knowledge
and understanding to:
· evaluate the benefits of different types of braking
system, such as regenerative braking
· evaluate the benefits of air bags, crumple zones,
seat belts and side impact bars in cars…read more

Slide 4

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· The current in an electric circuit depends on
the resistance of the components and the
· Candidates should use their skills, knowledge
and understanding to:
· apply the principles of basic electrical circuits
to practical situations
· evaluate the use of different forms of lighting,
in terms of cost and energy efficiency.…read more

Slide 5

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Atoms and radiation
· Radioactive substances emit radiation from the nuclei of their atoms all the time.
These nuclear radiations can be very useful but may also be very dangerous. It is
important to understand the properties of different types of nuclear radiation. To
understand what happens to radioactive substances when they decay we need to
understand the structure of the atoms from which they are made. The use of
radioactive sources depends on their penetrating power and half-life.
· Candidates should use their skills, knowledge and understanding to:
· evaluate the effect of occupation and / or location on the level of background
radiation and radiation dose
· evaluate the possible hazards associated with the use of different types of nuclear
· evaluate measures that can be taken to reduce exposure to nuclear radiations
· evaluate the appropriateness of radioactive sources for particular uses, including as
tracers, in terms of the type(s) of radiation emitted and their half-lives
· explain how results from the Rutherford and Marsden scattering experiments led to
the `plum pudding' model being replaced by the nuclear model.…read more

Slide 6

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Life cycles of stars…read more


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