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B2.1 Cells

1.1 Animal and Plant Cells
Animal and Plant cells have some structures in
common they have:

A nucleus to control the cells activities
Cytoplasm where many chemical reactions
take place
A cell membrane that controls the movement
of materials
Mitochondria where energy is released during
aerobic respiration

Page 2

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B2.1 Cells

1.2 Specialised Cells
When an egg is fertilised it begins to grow and develop.

At first there is a growing ball of cells. Then as the organism gets bigger, some of the cells
change and become specialised.

There are many different types of specialised cells, e.g.:

Some cells…

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B2.1 Cells

1.3 How do substances get in and out of cells?
Molecules move randomly because of the energy they have.

Diffusion is the random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of
lower concentration.

The larger the difference in concentration, the faster the rate…

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B2.1 Cells

1.4 Osmosis
Osmosis is the movement of water.

Just like diffusion, the movement of molecules is random and requires no energy from the cell.

Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a partially permeable membrane from a dilute solution
to a more concentrated solution. No solute molecules can…


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