AQA, additional science

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  • Created by: totowa
  • Created on: 20-04-11 11:49
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1) Human Biology
Nervous System Alcohol & Smoking
Hormones Fighting Disease
Menstrual Cycle
Controlling Fertility
Diet & Exercise
Cholesterol & Salt
2) Evolution & Environment
Adaptation Population & Competition
Extinction Variation
Human Impact on Environment Genes, Chromosomes & DNA
Acid Rain Reproduction
Greenhouse Effect Cloning
Climate Change Genetic Engineering
Sustainable Development Evolution
Planning for the Future
3) Life Processes I
Cells Food Chains
Specialised Cells Pyramids of Numbers & Biomass
Diffusion Energy Transfer
Osmosis Managing Food
Active Transport Decay
Photosynthesis The Carbon Cycle
Maximising Growth Enzymes
Using the Glucose Homeostasis
Minerals in Plants Genetics

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Life Processes II
Active Transport Kidneys
Gas and Solute Exchange Kidney Failure
Circulatory System
5) Microorganisms
Food & Drink from Microorganisms
Using Yeast
Microorganisms in Industry
Fuels from Microorganisms
Using Microorganisms safely
2…read more

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Nervous System
Your nervous system enables you to react to your surroundings and co-ordinate your behavior. The
human body is constantly picking up pieces of information around us, sensing the environment. These pieces of
information are called stimuli. Special Areas of the body detect these stimuli; these areas are called receptors
and are usually found within the sense organs. Your body has 5 different sense organs and they all contain
different receptors (table below).…read more

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This is the breakdown of how your nervous system works:
Receptor Sensory Co-ordinator Motor Effector
Neurone (CNS) Neurone
These are found These are the This is where all These are the Muscles and
in sense organs nerve cells that the information nerve cells that glands are known
and they detect transmit the from the sense transmit as effectors and
stimuli.…read more

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Reflex actions involve just three types of neuron. These are:
Sensory Neurones
Motor Neurones
Relay Neurones (these just connect a sensory neuron with the right motor neuron. They are found
in the spinal cord, usually in the CNS)
Receptor Sensory Interneuron Motor Effector
Neurone (Relay Neurone) Neurone
Attached to sensory Transmits This is found in Transmits Muscle connected
neuron to detect information to the spinal cord information from to a motor neuron
stimuli. spinal cord. (usually in the integration centre to carry out the
CNS).…read more

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Here are a few reflex actions in detail:
Reflex Stimulus Receptor Co-ordinator Effector Response
1. Pupil Light in your Light receptor Brain Pupil Your pupils dilate
Contraction & eyes (eyes) or contract
Dilation according to light
2. Adrenaline Shock to your Sensory Brain Adrenal Gland Your body
Release body Receptors releases
adrenaline to give
you an energy
3.…read more

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Acts for a very short time Acts for a long time
Acts on a very precise area Acts in a more general way
Hormones and Nerves do similar jobs however there are differences:
Hormones control various organs and cells in the body, though they tend to control things that aren't
immediately life-threatening. For example, they take care of all things to do with sexual development,
pregnancy, birth, breast-feeding, blood sugar levels, water content ... and so on.…read more

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Hormones control the different stages if the Menstrual Cycle. There are three main ones involved:
FSH (Follicle LH (Luteinising
Stimulating Hormone) Oestrogen
·Produced by pituitary ·Produced in the ovaries ·Produced by the Pituitary
gland ·Causes pituitary to Gland.
·Causes an egg to mature in produce LH ·Stimulates the release of
one of the ovaries ·Inhibits the further an egg at around the
·Stimulates the ovaries to release of FSH middle of the menstrual
produce oestrogen. cycle.…read more

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The spike of LH shown on the diagram is due to the release of the mature egg on that day. Oestrogen
controls the buildup of the lining of the womb and so it is also highest when the egg is released so the egg can
imbed itself. The levels of FSH stay relatively the same throughout the cycle.…read more

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Controlling Fertility
The hormones FSH, LH and Oestrogen can be used to artificially change how fertile a woman is.
Contraceptive Pill:
The hormone oestrogen can be used to prevent the release of an egg, so it can be used as a method of
contraception. The pill is an oral contraceptive that contains oestrogen.…read more


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