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Animal and plant cells:



Animal cell:


















Plant cells:























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Animal cells do not have cells walls, only membranes

Organised cells










Diffusion:
Diffusion is the net movement of particles from an area where they are at a high
concentration to an area where they are at a low concentration. If there is a big
difference in concentration, the rate of…

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Photosynthesis:

Carbon dioxide+ Water [+ light energy] Glucose+
Water
Cells in the leaves of the plants contain chloroplast, which contain a green
substance called chlorophyll. Light energy is absorbed by the chlorophyll, and
used to convert carbon dioxide from the air plus water from the soil into glucose.
The reaction…

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Magnesium Making chlorophyll Pale, yellow leaves

Pyramids of Biomass:
Radiation from the Sun is the source of energy for all chains

Organism Number Biomass

Oak tree 1 500000

Aphids 10000 1000

Lady birds 200 50

Sparrow 5 10









Energy losses:
Waste indigestible parts, faeces, urea (excess broken down protein)
Movement…

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Enzymes:
Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up reactions but are not used up in
the reaction. They work by bonding with the substrate and breaking it into smaller
products that can be absorbed more easily.

























Enzymes in digestion:

Where they are
Name of enzyme What they break down
found…

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Making use of enzymes:
Biological detergents: proteases and lipases are used to break down the
proteins and fats in the stains
Baby foods: Proteases are used to predigest some of the proteins that a
baby's digestive system cannot cope with
Slimming foods: Isomerase breaks glucose into fructose, which is a…

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Glucose levels:
Glucose levels are controlled by the pancreas, which monitors the levels in the
blood. When they are too high, it releases a hormone known as insulin, which
stimulates the liver to take up the excess glucose and convert it to an insoluble
carbohydrate called glycogen, which is then…

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Not all diseases are infectious. Some, such as cystic fibrosis are caused by
faulty alleles. The allele is recessive, so both parents must either be a carrier or
have the disease to pass it on. We can see the probability using a punnet
square.




























Additional Biology: Revision Notes

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