AQA A level AS Geography-Cold Environments Terminology*with pictures*

All the terminology needed for section 3 cold enviroments accurate from AQA text book with pictures :D

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Roberta Phillips
Arêtes- Steep sided knife edge mountain ridge often marking the edges of a corrie or the
watershed between two valleys (troughs)
Basal Sliding- Large scale and often quite sudden movement of a portion of ice usually
lubricated by sub glacial movement
Cold based glacier- Glacier where the base temperature is too low to enable liquid water
to be present and where the glacier will probably be frozen to the ground.
Compressional flow- `Piling up' or thickening of the ice (glacier) due to decrease in long
profile valley floor or gradient.
Corries-Enlarged armchair shaped hollows on mountainside characterized by steep back wall
and hollowed out bowl, occasionally containing a lake
Drumlins- Egg shaped depositional features, often in groups (swarms), resulting from
the molding of sub glacial (ground) moraine by moving ice over the top.
Eskers- Sinuous (winding) ridges found on the floor of glacial trough, formed by
fluvioglacial deposition in a meandering sub- glacial river
Extensional flow- Stretching or thinning of ice (glacier) in response to an increase in gradient
Fragile environments ­ natural environments where processes operate slowly and where
ecosystems can be easily harmed and take a long time to recover.
Frost Heave- Small scale upwards displacement of soil particles resulting from freezing and
expansion of water just below ground surface.
Frost Shattering/ Freeze Thaw- A physical weathering process involving altering freezing and
thawing of water in joints and pores within rocks
Glacial surge- Relatively rapid but usually short term movement of glacier

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Roberta Phillips
Glacial system- Inter relationships between components in a glacial environment, often
sub- divided into inputs, processes and outputs
Glacial troughs- Glacially- enlarged river valley characterised by having a broad flat base and
steep sides (U shaped)
Glacial Budget- Balance between inputs (accumulation) such as snowfall and avalanches
and outputs (ablation) such as calving and melting
Hanging Valleys ­ Tributary glacial trough perched up on the side of a main glacial trough
and often marked by a waterfall
Ice Wedges- V shaped ice filled…read more

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Roberta Phillips
Periglacial- Environments experiencing long cold winters and short warm summer ,
typically with frozen ground (permafrost) but not covered by ice(glacial)
Permafrost- Permanently frozen soil and rock a key characteristic of Periglacial environment
Pingos- Ice cored mounds found in Periglacial environments formed by the freezing of sub
surface water bodies and subsequent swelling of the ground surface
Pyramidal peaks- Remnant of intense glacial erosion taking to form a very steep sided
isolated peak
Rational flow- Concave or arcuate flow typically experienced in a…read more

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