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Features of Scientific Evidence

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Peer review
Peer review acts as a control mechanism and is central to
validating new knowledge

1) Psychologist writes up their study
2) Sent to a journal
3) Sent to the editor to examine
4) Editor sends it to other psychologists
who are experts in the area
5) Experts `Peer…

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DESIGNING A STUDY

Hypothesis ­ 1 tailed or 2 tailed and WHY?

IV & DV ­ operationalized clearly

Sample Size ­ number of ppts & gender specific

Sampling Method ­ opportunity, random, volunteer and
WHY?

Statistical Test ­ spearmans rho, Mann Whiteney and
WHY?

Significance Level ­ p<0.05 and
WHY?…

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Debrief Them ­ say `thank you' explain real aim of study
and ask if they have questions. REMEMBER TO YOU 1ST
PERSON `YOU'



VALIDITY

Internal Validity - measuring what you intended to measure.
­ control extraneous variables so they do not influence the DV

External Validity ­ findings can be…

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ECOLOGICAL ­ if findings can be applied to other contexts
and situations outside the research setting. Make sure the
circumstances of the investigation as real as possible




RELIABILITY

Internal Reliability ­ measures the
extent to which a test or procedure
is consistent within itself.
Questionnaire items or questions in
an…

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Participants take the same test on different occasions ­
a high correlation between test scores indicates the test
has good external reliability ­ demand characteristics
may occur as participants are bound to improve on the same
test

INTER RATER RELIABILITY (Two researchers)
Consistency between different researchers working on
the same…

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PROBABILITY

Level of Significance ­
The level at which the null hypothesis is accepted or rejected

P 0.05
There should only be a 5% chance that the results of the
experiment is down to luck/chance

P 0.01
Rarely used
Only when psychologists need to be VERY certain that
their study…

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TYPE TWO

When the `null hypothesis' is accepted but it is actually
false
e.g. your study has worked but you claimed it as not
significant
You should have rejected the null hypothesis




TYPES OF DATA - Quantitative

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Statistical Tests
(Allow us to see whether the null hypothesis should be
accepted or rejected)

There is a different statistical test for each type of data ­
Non Parametric tests (used to test interval , ratio & nominal data)

1) Spearmans Rank ­ Correlation
2) Mann Whitney U test -…

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ANALYSING QUALITATIVE DATA

Organise the data (e.g. for speech ­ count pauses,
describe tone)
Code the data (put into themes)

1. Content Analysis

The method by which you take qualitative data and analyse it in order
to draw quantitative conclusions
Convert qualitative data (words, pictures, meanings) into quantitative
data (numbers,…

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