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Urban Decline
Urban decline is the deterioration of the inner city area often caused by lack of investment and
maintenance. It is often accompanied by a decline in population numbers.

There is often a pattern to the decline:

1 Decline in Industry The movement of manufacturing overseas causes industry to…

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Urban Regeneration
Urban regeneration involves the relocation of businesses, the demolition of structures and the relocation
of people.

Gentrification is when wealthier people move into a run-down area and regenerate it by improving their
If often causes social changes in the area ­ lower income groups are replaced…

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Case Study: Islington, London
Islington is a borough in North London.
There are lots of large Georgian and early Victorian houses, which were originally occupied by wealthy
In the late 19th century, the railways expanded and made access to the city easier, so the wealthier
residents left Islington and…

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Case Study: London Thames Gateway
The Thames Gateway is one of four growth areas id entified in the UK government's Sustainability
Communities Plan published in February 2003.

The plans for redevelopment of the area provide a good example of property-led redevelopment where
investment in buildings or transport infrastructure is designed…

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The project is on-going but it's had a number of successes so far:

The population of the area is growing, e.g. between 2001 and 2011 the population of the borough
of Barking and Dagenham rose by 12%
Renovation of schools has led to improvements in pupil's education achievement
E.g. a…


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