AQA A2 Geography World Cities: Urban Decline

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  • Created on: 27-10-13 17:51
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Urban Decline
Urban decline is the deterioration of the inner city area often caused by lack of investment and
maintenance. It is often accompanied by a decline in population numbers.
There is often a pattern to the decline:
1 Decline in Industry The movement of manufacturing overseas causes industry to close
Industry may also move to sites outside the city centre
2 Increase in Unemployment If industry declines there will be a loss of jobs
This will lead to an increase in unemployment
Some unemployed people will move out to look for jobs elsewhere
Jobs available to people left behind are unskilled or low paid
3 Shops and Services Decline If lots of people leave the city there will be less use of services
The people who remain have less disposable income
Shops may be forced to close down and services go into decline
4 Physical Environment Declines As industry moves out, buildings are left derelict
This leads to graffiti and vandalism
Recreational areas are neglected crime problems may rise
The area becomes unattractive and less people want to live there
Urban Deprivation
Urban deprivation is a standard of living below that of the majority in a particular society that involves
hardships and lack of access to resources.
Causes and Characteristics:
Social Economic Environmental
High level of car ownership Lack of investment as funds More rubbish evidently
focused on new towns
High crime rates More low income, semi-skilled Derelict land and buildings
and manual workers
Older housing shows evidence of Deteriorating physical fabric of More noise and air pollution
overcrowding buildings
Segregation of population Derelict land and buildings Water course polluted
Higher death and infant mortality More children in care and/or on Run down terrace housing
free school meals
Many families on benefit Declining industry Vandalism and graffiti
More single parent families Run down terrace housing High-rise buildings
More pensioners
Segregation by ethnic groups
Low levels of academic
The closing of schools

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Urban Regeneration
Urban regeneration involves the relocation of businesses, the demolition of structures and the relocation
of people.
Gentrification is when wealthier people move into a run-down area and regenerate it by improving their
If often causes social changes in the area ­ lower income groups are replaced by more affluent people.…read more

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Case Study: Islington, London
Islington is a borough in North London.
There are lots of large Georgian and early Victorian houses, which were originally occupied by wealthy
In the late 19th century, the railways expanded and made access to the city easier, so the wealthier
residents left Islington and moved out into the suburbs.
Poorer residents from central London moved into the area, which became overcrowded.
They couldn't afford to maintain the housing and the area became run down.…read more

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Case Study: London Thames Gateway
The Thames Gateway is one of four growth areas id entified in the UK government's Sustainability
Communities Plan published in February 2003.
The plans for redevelopment of the area provide a good example of property-led redevelopment where
investment in buildings or transport infrastructure is designed to stimulate an area and attract further
development, jobs and residents.
The London Thames Gateway is a large area stretching for 40 miles along the Thames to the East of
London.…read more

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The project is on-going but it's had a number of successes so far:
The population of the area is growing, e.g. between 2001 and 2011 the population of the borough
of Barking and Dagenham rose by 12%
Renovation of schools has led to improvements in pupil's education achievement
E.g.…read more


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