AQA A2 Geography World Cities: Suburbanisation

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  • Created on: 27-10-13 17:49
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Suburbanisation is the movement of people from city centres to the outskirts or the rural-urban fringe.
Push Factors Pull Factors
Some housing in cities is poor quality Planning laws may be more relaxed outside city
In the UK in the 1940's many houses in the inner centres so it's easier to build houses
cities lacked basic services like bathrooms and In the UK, until the 1950's developers took
heating advantage of relaxed planning laws and built new
housing estates on the edge of urban areas
As countries develop, governments often clear low Improvements in public transport and increasing car
quality city centre housing and provide new houses ownership mean that people can live further away
outside the city for residents from work and commute in to the city each day
Slum clearance took place in the UK between 1950
and 1970 where people where moved to council
estates on the outskirts of urban areas
Deindustrialisation in city centres leads to people As businesses and shops move out of city centres to
losing their jobs take advantage of cheaper rents on the outskirts,
more jobs and services become available in the
As unemployment increases in the city, people have More open spaces and a perception of being closer
less money to spend there so local shops and to nature
services may be forced to close
Congestion and population density of city centres Lower land prices and housing prices
Pollution causes by industry and high levels of traffic Technological advances mean people can work from
Suburbanisation has impacts on the City Centre and the Suburbs
Impacts on City Centre Impacts on Suburbs
As people and businesses move out to the suburbs, New housing estates are often build on open
buildings in the city are abandoned and may countryside which affects wildlife habitats
become derelict.
As businesses leave unemployment increases, which As urban areas spread, more ground is concreted
leads to lower living standards and poverty over which can increase surface run off and increase
risk of flooding
Wealthier middle class people may move to the Most people in the suburbs own cars which means
suburbs where there is a better quality of life that the number of cars on the road increases,
The people left behind are poorer and often foreign causing congestion and air pollution
This can lead to economic and ethnic segregation
Some people from the suburbs may still commute The UK have had to adopt `green belt' policies that
into the city to work which increases congestion and limit the growth in the fringe of a city to encourage
pollution more growth in the urban core.

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Case Study: Los Angeles
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Historically, Los Angeles growth has relied on the assumption that cheap natural resources such as water
would always be available.
This assumption is proving to be damaging ­ the rising cost of energy and the shortage of natural resources
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