AQA A2 Biology Unit 4 3.4.4 Respiration

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Unit 4 Populations and Environment…read more

Slide 2

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Aerobic Respiration…read more

Slide 3

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Glycolysis takes place in the
cytoplasm of the cell. 1 x Glucose
Glucose is first phosphorylated by 2
phosphate groups from 2 molecules 2ATP
of ATP to produce 2 molecules of
2ADP + 2P
GALP is then oxidised and
dephosphorylated into pyruvate.
In this process, the phosphate groups 2 x Glyceraldehyde
are transferred to ADP producing 2
molecules of ATP. A hydrogen is 3-phosphate
transferred to a molecule of NAD
producing NADH.
4ADP + 4P 2NAD
The net yield of glycolysis per
glucose is
2 pyruvate
The pyruvate produced then diffuses 2 x Pyruvate
into the mitochondria.…read more

Slide 4

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The Link Reaction
Takes place in the matrix.
Pyruvate undergoes oxidative 2 x Pyruvate
Electrons and hydrogen from the pyruvate
are transferred to NAD producing NADH.
Decarboxylation NADH
Carbon dioxide is removed which
converts the pyruvate into acetate.
Carbon dioxide
The acetate then combines with
CoenzymeA to produce Acetyl CoenzymeA
Since 2 molecules of pyruvate were
produced in glycolysis, the net yield of
the link reaction per glucose is
2 Acetyl CoenzymeA
2 Carbon dioxide Acetyl
CoenzymeA…read more

Slide 5

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The Krebs Cycle
Takes place in the matrix.
Closed cycle of enzyme controlled reactions.
Provides a continuous supply of reduced electron
carriers for the electron transport chain.
AcetylCoA combines with a 4-C compound to
produce citric acid, a 6-C compound.
The citric acid then undergoes
A decarboxylation reaction which removes carbon
A series of oxidation reactions which remove hydrogen
ions and electrons. H + ions and e ­ are picked up by
NAD and FAD and they become NADH and FADH.
At the end of the cycle the 4-C compound is
recycled so the cycle can continue. ADP NADH
Since each glucose molecule produced 2 molecules ATP
of pyruvate and so 2 molecules of AcetylCoA, the
yield per glucose for the Krebs cycle is
4 carbon dioxide
2ATP…read more

Slide 6

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Electron Transport Chain
Found on the cristae of the mitochondria
which provide a large surface area for this
to take place.
The electron carriers are arranged in
descending energy levels.
When electrons pass through the carriers,
the energy released is used to move
hydrogen ions from the matrix into the
intermembrane space.
This creates a large concentration
gradient of H+ ions and so they diffuse
back into the mitochondrial membrane by
diffusion via ATP synthase.
As the H+ ions diffuse through the
enzyme, they attach P groups to ADP to
produce ATP.
At the end of the chain, the electrons are
picked up by the terminal electron
acceptor, which is oxygen, to produce
2e - + 2H + + ½O2 H2O
This process is called oxidative
phosphorylation.…read more

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