AQA A2 Biology Unit 4 3.4.2 ATP

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3.4.2 ATP
Structure of ATP
Synthesis
ATP is made in Mitochondria by the following process:
1. During the Link Reaction and Krebs cycle, reduced NAD and reduced FAD are made.
2. Electrons then pass through a series of carriers releasing energy.
3. Energy is used to move H+ ions from the membrane into the intermembrane space.
4. This creates an H+ ion gradient.
5. H+ ions flow back through ATP synthase which converts ADP + P to ATP.
Some ATP is also produced by substrate level phosphorylation in the Krebs cycle.
Why It Is Useful
It releases energy in small manageable amounts.
It is broken down in a one-step reaction.
It makes energy immediately available.
It's easily formed, broken down and reformed (reversible reaction).
Can be used to phosphorylate molecules to activate them and increase their energy levels.
It is small and water soluble so is easily transported.
Plants must be able to produce ATP during both respiration and photosynthesis because;
Photosynthesis only takes place in the light (daytime).
Photosynthesis can only take place in tissue containing chloroplasts.
ATP is not stored therefore other methods of generation are needed.
Photosynthesis does not produce enough ATP for all of the plants needs for processes such as active transport and
synthesis reactions.

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