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Succession
Succession is the process by which an ecosystem changes over time.
The biotic conditions change as the abiotic conditions change.

There are two types of succession:

Primary Succession Secondary Succession
Happens on land that's been newly formed This happens on land that's been cleared of
or exposed. There's no…

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Secondary Succession

Secondary succession happens in the same way, but because there's already a soil layer
succession starts at a later seral stage ­ the pioneer species in secondary succession are
larger plants.

The process by which the ecosystem returns to its climax community is the same as
described above,…

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Different ecosystems have different climax communities.

Which species make up the climax community depends on what the climate's like in an
ecosystem. The climax community for a particular community is called its climatic climax.

For example:

Temperate Climate Polar Climate
There's plenty of available water, mild There's not much available…

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Conservation
Conservation is the management of the Earth's natural resources in such a way that
maximum use of them can be made in the future.

This involves active intervention by humans to maintain ecosystems and biodiversity.



The main reasons for conservation are:

Reason Explanation
Ethical Other species have occupied the…

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Ways to Conserve Species and Habitats
Different species and habitats need to be conserved in different ways.



Conserving habitats by Managing Succession
Conservation sometimes involves preventing succession in order to preserve an ecosystem
in its current seral stage.

One example of this is the moorland that exists over much of…

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Animals can be conserved using Captive Breeding Programmes
Captive breeding programmes involve breeding animals in controlled environments.
Species that are endangered, or already extinct in the wild, can be bred in captivity to help
increase their numbers.
However, some animals can have trouble breeding outside their natural habitat, which can…

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Conflicting Interests
One challenging conservation issue in the UK is the conflict between the conservation of hen
harriers and the commercial hunting of red grouse.

One scientific survey investigated the effect of predation by hen harriers on the breeding
success of red grouse on managed moorland in Scotland.

Some of…

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