AQA Population Change

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Population Change
Population Indicators
Vital Rates:
Key Term Definition
Birth Rate The number of live births per 1,000 people per year
Death Rate The number of deaths per 1,000 people per year
Fertility Rate The number of live births per 1,000 women of the child bearing age group (1550)
Infant Mortality The number of deaths of children under the age of 1 per 1,000 lives per year
Life Expectancy The average number of years from birth that a person can be expected to live
Migration Rate The number of people moving into an area (immigration) less the number moving out
Population Density The number of people living per square kilometre in an area
Causes of Population Growth:
Health The control of disease, birth control measures, infant mortality rates, diet and
malnutrition, the numbers of doctors and nurses, sexual health, sanitation, etc.
Education Health education, the age of which compulsory schooling finishes, females in
education, levels of tertiary education, literacy levels, etc.
Social Provision Levels of care for the elderly, availability of them media, clean water supply, etc.
Cultural Factors Religious attitudes to birth control, status gain from having children, the role of
women in society, sexual morality, etc.
Political Factors Taxation to support services, strength of the economy, impact of war and
conflicts, access to healthcare and contraception, etc.
Environmental Factors Frequency of hazards, environmental conditions that breed diseases, etc.
Changes in Population Characteristics:
Fertility Mortality
In most parts of the world, fertility exceeds both Some of the highest death rates are found in less
mortality and migration and so is the main developed countries , particularly subSaharan
indicator of population growth Africa
Several African countries (e.g. Niger, Liberia, Mali) Liberia, Niger, Sierra Leone, Zambia and
have very high birth rates of 50 and over per 1,000 Zimbabwe all have death rates of 20 per 1,000 or
per year more
Austria, Germany, Bulgaria and Ukrain have very Some of the l owest mortality rates are also found
low birth rates of 9 and under per 1,000 per year in countries at the less developed countries, for
Why does fertility vary? example Kuwait (2 per 1,000), Bahrain (3 per
o Relationship with death rate countries in 1,000) and M exico (5 per 1,000)
subSaharan Africa have high birth rates that Why does mortality vary?
counter the high rates of infant mortality o Infant mortality prime indicator of
women must have 89 children to be 95% of a socioeconomic development as it is the most
surviving adult son sensitive of the agespecific rates. Sierra Leone
o Tradition 92% of women who had 2 children 163 per 1,000 and Finland 3 per 1,000
in Vietnam said they did not wish to have any o Medical infrastructure good healthcare =
more children, in Nigeria the percentage for 4% lower mortality. A lack of prenatal and
o Religion Islam and Roman Catholics oppose postnatal care, shortage of medical facilities
the use of artificial birth control and trained professional care affects mortality
o Education better education = lower fertility as o Life expectancy poverty, poor nutrition and a
women are choosing to fulfil their careers first lack of clean water and sanitation increase
mortality rates

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Population Change
o Young age structures large proportions of o AIDS a major effect on mortality, especially in
young people, as there are in Mali (48%) and subSaharan Africa.…read more

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Population Change
Stage 3 Late Expanding:
Example Birth Rate Death Rate Total Population
Stage Brazil DECREASING: SLOW DECREASE: Slow increase
3 increased availability of improved medical care
birth control better sanitation
better education for
preferences for smaller
increased personal
Stage 4 Low Fluctuating:
Example Birth Rate Death Rate Total Population
Stage UK/USA LOW: LOW: Slow increase
4 more women in the good healthcare
workforce reliable food supply
improved status of
high personal incomes
Stage 5 Decline:
Example Birth Rate Death Rate…read more

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Population Change
Population Structures
Population Structure ­ the proportion of males and females in an area, usually in the form of age
Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 5
High birth rate High birth rate Decreasing Low birth rate Low birth rate
= wide base = wide base birth rate = = narrow base = narrow base
High death Less concave narrowing base Low death rate Low death rate
rate = narrow Low death rate = wider top = wide top…read more

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Population Change
This is the inverse of the dependency ratio. The higher the support ratio, the more
`support' there will be for the dependence.
Juvenility Index Juvenility Index = (Population 019)
(Population 20 and over)
The higher the juvenility index, the greater the proportion of younger people in a
Oldage Index Oldage Index = (Population 60 and over)
(Population 2059)
The higher the oldage index, the greater the proportion of elderly people in a population.…read more

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Population Change
Social, Economic and Political Implications of Population Change
The Impacts of an Ageing Population:
Economic Political Social
Grey pound/ the elderly Raising the retirement age Care for grandchildren so
contributing to the economy increases the workforce and parents can go to work and
spending more money on independence earn money
holidays, leisure activities = Wisdom of the elderly
putting money back into the
More workers the demand for
housing leads to more jobs e.g.…read more

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Population Change
Managing Population Change
AntiNatalist China's One Child Policy:
A policy was introduced to reduce the population in China. They believed that `a large population gives a strong
nation' and a famine in 1959 lead to 20 million people dying. This lead to the birth rate soaring to 5.8 and an
increase of 55 million people being born every year between 1960 and 1973.
The Policy:
In 1979, China introduced the One Child Policy, where families could only have 1 child.…read more

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Population Change
ProNatalist Romania
In 1960, the natural population increase was only 1.4/1000 people which was very low. This was because the
country was in famine leading to a high death rate, abortion was available on demand and people were living in
poor, cramped housing associated with urbanisation. The country was heading towards zero population growth.
The Policy:
Abortion was prohibited police patrolled hospitals checking if people were following the rules.…read more

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Population Change
Natural Population Change and Migration Affecting Rural and Urban Areas
Migration: refers to all population movements. However, UN recommends that it should only be used when:
population moves from 1 administrative to another e.g. UK to France, Kent to Essex
the result is a change of permanent residence
Circulation: for all other movements, circulation is used. It includes movements which are short term and circular
in nature, e.g.…read more

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Population Change
People LEAVING a Country People ENTERING a Country
A place loses residents to other countries e.g. Barra in A place receives an influx of people e.g. DaresSalaam,
Scotland, an island in the outer Hebrides. Poor the largest city in Tanzania, is a thriving port and has
economic opportunities due to remote location means long been a magnet for those seeking employment in
that younger adults move away. East Africa.…read more


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