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Population Change
Population Indicators

Vital Rates:
Key Term Definition
Birth Rate The number of live births per 1,000 people per year
Death Rate The number of deaths per 1,000 people per year
Fertility Rate The number of live births per 1,000 women of the child bearing age group (1550)

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Population Change
o Young age structures large proportions of o AIDS a major effect on mortality, especially in
young people, as there are in Mali (48%) and subSaharan Africa. 40 million people are
Bolivia (39%) ensure future population growth affect, with over 25 million in subSaharan
Africa 20% of people…

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Population Change

Stage 3 Late Expanding:
Example Birth Rate Death Rate Total Population
Stage Brazil DECREASING: SLOW DECREASE: Slow increase
3 increased availability of improved medical care
birth control better sanitation
better education for
preferences for smaller
increased personal

Stage 4 Low Fluctuating:
Example Birth Rate Death…

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Population Change

Population Structures
Population Structure ­ the proportion of males and females in an area, usually in the form of age

Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 5
High birth rate High birth rate Decreasing Low birth rate Low birth rate
= wide base =…

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Population Change
This is the inverse of the dependency ratio. The higher the support ratio, the more
`support' there will be for the dependence.
Juvenility Index Juvenility Index = (Population 019)
(Population 20 and over)
The higher the juvenility index, the greater the proportion of younger people in a

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Population Change

Social, Economic and Political Implications of Population Change

The Impacts of an Ageing Population:
Economic Political Social
Grey pound/ the elderly Raising the retirement age Care for grandchildren so
contributing to the economy increases the workforce and parents can go to work and
spending more money on independence…

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Population Change

Managing Population Change
AntiNatalist China's One Child Policy:
A policy was introduced to reduce the population in China. They believed that `a large population gives a strong
nation' and a famine in 1959 lead to 20 million people dying. This lead to the birth rate soaring to 5.8…

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Population Change

ProNatalist Romania

In 1960, the natural population increase was only 1.4/1000 people which was very low. This was because the
country was in famine leading to a high death rate, abortion was available on demand and people were living in
poor, cramped housing associated with urbanisation. The country…

Page 9

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Population Change

Natural Population Change and Migration Affecting Rural and Urban Areas

Migration: refers to all population movements. However, UN recommends that it should only be used when:
population moves from 1 administrative to another e.g. UK to France, Kent to Essex
the result is a change of permanent residence…

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Population Change

People LEAVING a Country People ENTERING a Country
A place loses residents to other countries e.g. Barra in A place receives an influx of people e.g. DaresSalaam,
Scotland, an island in the outer Hebrides. Poor the largest city in Tanzania, is a thriving port and has
economic opportunities…


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