AQA Health Issues

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Health Issues
Global Patterns
Key Term Definition
Life Expectancy The average number of years that a person may expect to live
Infant Mortality The number of deaths of children under the age of 1 per 1,000 lives per year
Child Mortality The number of deaths of children under the age of 5 per 1,000 lives per year
Mortality The death of people. It is measured by a number of indices including death rate, infant
mortality rate, casemortality and attack rate
Morbidity Illness and the reporting of disease. In the UK 2001 census respondents were asked how
well they felt and whether they had a limiting longterm illness. Some disease are so
infectious that by law they must be reported; these are usually included in international
surveillance programmes, e.g. plaque, cholera, yellow fever, malaria, influenza and typhoid
CaseMortality Rate The number of people dying from a disease divided by the number of those diagnosed as
having the disease
Attack Rate The number of cases of a disease diagnosed in an area, dividing by the total population,
over the period of an epidemic
Death Rate The number of deaths per 1,000 people per year
Global Patterns of:
Mortality The highest crude death rates are found in the less developed countries ­ particularly
SubSaharan Africa
Death rate is 20 or more per 1,000 ­ Liberia, Niger, Sierra Leone, Zambia and Zimbabwe
However some less developed countries have the lowest mortality rates ­ Kuwait (2 per 1,000),
Bahrain (3 per 1,000) and Mexico (5 per 1,000)
Infant mortality is falling across the world , but there are still wide variations between nations ­
142 infant deaths per 1,000 births in Liberia , compared to 3 per 1,000 in Finland
Areas with high rates of infant mortality have high rates of mortality overall
Morbidit Influenza Yellow Fever
y Influenza is caused by a virus that attacks the Yellow fever is a viral diseases that has caused
upper respiratory tract ­ the nose, the throat and epidemics in Africa and the Americas . Infection
bronchi and sometimes also the lungs. The causes a wide spectrum of disease, from mild
infection normally lasts for about a week and is symptoms to severe illness and death. The
characterised by sudden onset of high fever , `yellow' explains the jaundice that affects some
headache , sore throat and a nonproductive patients.
cough .
The virus remains silent in the body during an
Influenza spreads around the world in seasonal incubation period of 36 days . It then enters the
epidemics and imposes an economic burden for ` acute ' phase which is characterised by fever ,
hospitals and other healthcare costs and lost muscle pain , headache , shivers and vomiting .
productivity . The annual influenza epidemics After 34 days , most patients improve and their
515% of the population. These annual epidemics symptoms disappear. However, 15% enter a
are thought to result in between 3 and 5 million ` toxic phase ' within 24 hours . The patient
cases of severe illness and between 250,000 to develops jaundice , blood in vomit and faeces
500,000 deaths every year around the world. and the kidney deteriorates . Half of all patients
Most deaths associated with influenza occur in the `toxic phase' die within 1014 days .
among those over 65 .
Influenza outbreak in Madagascar ­ 27,000 The virus is constantly present at low levels of
cases were reported in 3 months and 800 infection ( endemic ) in some tropical areas of
deaths occurred. Africa and the Americas . Outbreaks have
Spanish Flu ­ killed at least 40 million people occurred in Europe , the Caribbean Island , and
in 191819 Central and North America . Yellow fever is an
endemic in 9 South American countries and in
several Caribbean islands . Brazil , Colombia ,

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Health Issues
Ecuador and Peru are at greatest risk. There are
an estimated 200,000 cases (30,000 deaths )
each year.
Health Health is defined as your physical, mental and social wellbeing, and the absence of disease.…read more

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Health Issues
Infectious Diseases HIV/AIDS
HIV is the human immunodeficiency virus which causes the illness of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).
It is a slow retrovirus meaning it takes years for symptoms to show . It invades white blood cells by writing the
structure of them backwards and reproducing itself inside the cells so the body can't fight against disease. HIV
attacks the immune system leading to an increased susceptibility to other diseases .…read more

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Health Issues
Preventing MothertoChild Transmission UNICEF provides treatment , care
and support for women and their families and they are also trying to change
the social attitudes of communities.
Noncommunicable Diseases Coronary Heart Disease
Coronary heart disease causes heart attacks which occur when the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle
becomes blocked, starving it of oxygen leading to the heart muscle's failure or death.…read more

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Health Issues
The Management of CHD:
Country Description
United Kingdom Dieticians promote the benefits for heart health of eating oily fish, more fruit and
vegetables and less saturated fat
Finland Communitybased interventions , including health education and nutrition labelling , have
led to populationwide reductions in cholesterol levels closely followed by a sharp decline
in heart disease
Japan Governmentled health education campaigns and increased treatment of high blood
pressure have reduced bloodpressure levels in the population
New Zealand The introduction of recognisable logos for healthy…read more

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Health Issues
Food and Health
Malnutrition:
Malnutrition is defined as a condition resulting from some form of dietary deficiency. This may be because the
quantity of food is too low or because certain important nutrients are absent . Malnutrition weakens immunity
and makes people more vulnerable to diseases .…read more

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Health Issues
The Management of Famine:
Famine relief is a shortterm aid that takes the form of distributing food . It is usually carried out by
nongovernment organisations (NGOs, e.g. Oxfam, Red Cross and Save the Children) and government. It is usually
given with caution because it could result in overdependence by the receiving country and might damage the
local agricultural economy .…read more

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Health Issues
In 2005, at least 20 million children under the age of 5 years were overweight
More than 60% of adults in the USA are overweight or obese
35% of children in USA are overweight
Overall, females are more obese than males
In males , the countries with less than 8.0% people obese are China, India and most of Africa
In females , the countries with less than 8.…read more

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Health Issues
Healthcare Approaches
Definition Doctor's Role Professional Facilities Payment
Bodies
Emergent Healthcare is viewed as Physician operates Professional Private Direct payment S
an item of personal as a solo associations are ownership of to physicians h
consumption entrepreneur powerful facilities m
Pluralistic Healthcare is viewed as Physician operates Professional Private and Direct payment S
a consumer product as a solo associations are public ownership to physicians h
they pay for entrepreneur powerful of facilities m
outpatient treatment, i
doctor's fees,
hospitalisation,
surgery, equipment
and…read more

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