Approches and Cards

Approches and Cards

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  • Created on: 01-06-11 13:02
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Baron-Cohen -- Cognitive approach Loftus & Palmer -- Cognitive approach
Background B-C's own research with children (Sally-Anne test); other tests with Background Studies on memory showing `post-event information' can distort
adults (Happe) recall; police interest in accuracy of Eye Witness Testimony
sample Autistic/Asperger Syndrome (ASD) 13 m 3 f; Tourettes; Normal sample 45 (exp 1) +150 (exp 2) students M/F
25f+25M (non-university, matched for age range)
Sample method ASD: Self selecting (advert in autistic magazine) + some known to B-C; Sample method Opportunity
Tourettes: self selecting - invited via clinic
Normal: "random" from Cambridge University pool of volunteers Method TWO Lab experiments; True
Method Lab experiment; Quasi IV 5 verbs (exp1); 2 verbs + control (exp 2)
IV Autism / Normal / Tourette's (control) DV Mean estimated speed (exp 1); false recall of broken glass (exp 2)
DV score when `reading' eyes
Technique self-report
Technique Self-report
results ASD Ps lower mean scores in eyes test + strange stories task cf. results Speed estimate reflected `strength' of verb (exp 1)
Tourette's & normal Ps. All Ps = comparable scores on 2x control tasks
Memory more likely to be distorted by verb "smashed" (16/50 exp
Conclusion Eyes task is useful alternative test for ASD (concurrent validity cf. 2) than control (7/50) or "hit" (8/50)
qualitative Happe's strange stories + quantitative); Reading emotion in Conclusion Memory may be distorted by `post-event information'
eyes requires Theory of Mind
Savage-Rumbough -- Cognitive approach Cognitive approach
Background Claim that only humans can learn language (LAD theory); previous re- Assumptions internal mental processes such as memory, thinking, reasoning, prob-
search with chimps and language lem-solving and language, are important features influencing human
Sample Two pygmy chimpanzees (Bonobos), Kanzi ands his sister Mulika.
Two common chimpanzees Sherman and Austin. Strengths has provided explanations of e.g.
how specific cognitive deficits influence behaviour
Sample method Opportunity (Kanzi's learning found "serendipitously" before study) animals other than humans are capable of using language
Method Lab experiment influence of leading questions on memory
It has useful applications e.g.
Method Case study police should avoid using leading questions
Techniques Observation (including `blind' trial) and testing (verbal and non-verbal) diagnosis of autism in adults
to speech therapist trying to develop children's language
Results Kanzi learnt like a human child because he copied things from his mum Tends to be reliable through use of controlled experiments
at first and then started learning for himself like a child; Bonobos re-
sponded well to speech, common chimps angry and confused; common
chimps over-generalised; Bonobos requested items for each other, com- Weaknesses often relies on Self-report technique = demand characteristics
mon chimps only for themselves Usually studied through laboratory experiments [S-R = case studies
in lab conditions] so lack ecological validity
Conclusion Pygmy chimps can learn in the a very similar way to humans; language often reductionist - ignores the complexity of human functioning e.g.
may not be uniquely human biological / social / psychodynamic factors

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Samuel and Bryant --Developmental Approach Bandura--Developmental Approach
ID Conservation Background Debate over the influence of aggression; Freudian explanation was
seeing aggression was `cathartic' (release) = reduced feelings of ag-
Background Piaget, <7yos could not conserve; Rose and Blank - children con-
gression after watching aggression
fused by 2 Qs - could conserve quantity if only asked 1
Sample 72 children; 36M, 36F; mean age 4½; all from Stanford University
Sample 256 children, 5-8yo, M/F, from schools / playgroups in Devon.…read more

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Maguire--physiological / biological approach Sperry --physiological / biological approach
Background hippocampus plays a role in spatial memory; view that brain could not Background Before brain imaging technology of 1980s little was known about
change in adults working brain, esp. role of corpus calosum (Sperry got Nobel prize)
Sample 16 RH. M, taxi drivers, age range 32-62, licensed for >1.…read more

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Piliavin -- social approach Milgram -- social approach
Background nobody helped in murder of Kitty Genovese; `diffusion of responsibil-
ity' explanation Background Nazi Germany - soldiers obeyed orders to kill innocent civilians;
`authoritarian' personality (individualistic) explanation of lethal obedi-
sample 4,000+ 45% black and 55% white M/F New Yorkers ence
Sample method Opportunity
Sample 40M; 20 - 50; "wide range of occupations;" paid $4.…read more

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Thigpen & Cleckley --Individual Differences Approach Rosenhan--Individual Differences Approach
Background unclear cases of identity; young lady suffering from headaches from Background Debates about the nature of mental illness; suggestions of ill-treatment
which she has lapses of memory of patients
Sample Staff (Doctors, Nurses, Orderlies) 12 hospitals
Sample one young woman
Sample method Opportunity
Sample method opportunity
Technique Observation (covert)
Method Case study Method Field observation / 12 case studies + field experiment (would staff talk
to patients?) + follow up
Techniques self-report (interview) + observation…read more

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Thigpen & Cleckley - essentially psychodynamic approach taken Freud - invented this perspective!
Background unclear cases of identity; young lady suffering from headaches from
Background Freud had tried to explain the unconscious mind in terms of early
which she has lapses of memory
childhood development but had not investigated young children di-
Sample one young woman
Sample 1 boy age 4+ (little Hans)
Sample method opportunity Method Case study
Method Case study Sample method Opportunity
Techniques self-report (interview) + observation + TESTS: EEG +…read more

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Savage-Rumbough - as a behaviourist study Bandura --as a behaviourist study
Background Claim that only humans can learn language (LAD theory); previous re- Behaviourist Social Learning theory - Children learned aggression via imitation
search with chimps and language aspect of role models; rewarded `vicariously' = by the excitement of watch-
Sample Two pygmy chimpanzees (Bonobos), Kanzi ands his sister Mulika. ing adults behave aggressively
Two common chimpanzees Sherman and Austin.…read more


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