Approaches - Behaviourism - Assumptions

assumptions of the behaviourist approach

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Cara
  • Created on: 15-06-12 17:34
Preview of Approaches - Behaviourism - Assumptions

First 255 words of the document:

1. Behaviour is learned from experience of the environment after birth. Therefore, psychology
should investigate the law of learning, i.e. classical and operant conditioning
2. Behaviour depends of consequences
3. Psychology should be scientific and objective (empiricism)
4. Animal research can be generalised to humans (extrapolation)
Stimulus ­ an object or event in the environment that causes or elicits a response
Response ­ a behaviour that results from the presentation of a stimulus. In classical conditioning, the
response is normally automatic and not under the control of the organism. Therefore, the behavioural
response is elicited by the stimulus. In operant conditioning, the behaviour is under the control of the
organism. It is therefore emitted by the stimulus (difference between elicit and emit)
Reinforcement ­ strengthens the link between stimulus and response, immediately and always.
Rewards do not necessarily do this
Extra details
Learn to do things when rewarded, learn not to do something when punished
Stimulus ­ response
Classical conditioning ­ Pavlov
Little Albert ­ Watson
Skinner Box ­ Operant Conditioning
CC ­ already have the behaviour
OC ­ new behaviours
Classical conditioning ­ a form of learning in which a stimulus (the conditioned stimulus) acquires the
ability to cause a behavioural response originally evoked by another stimulus (the unconditional
Operant conditioning ­ type of learning that occurs through either reinforcement of punishment of a
behavioural response.
Positive and negative reinforcement ­ encourages
Punishment ­ discourages


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all resources »