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Applied Ethics
Conservation ­
Preservation ­
Instrumental value ­
Intrinsic value ­
ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS
Dominion
In Genesis 1, God said `let them have dominion over' all non-human animals.
Dominion can be interpreted as humans having reign and rule over God's creation.
Humans may consider that the natural world can be…

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Shallow ecology believes that the environment is important and should be looked
after only if it benefits humans. The environment has instrumental value ­ its value is
dependent on what it can do for humans.
It is a conservationist theory as it looks at the use, allocation and protection of…

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Humans have made progress in improving the damage they have
caused to the environment; for example banning CFC's to protect the ozone
layer,
However, humans are still consciously destroying the environment; for
example causing the extinction of animals as a sport, drying up the oil supply
in third world countries,…

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damage the environment, as it would require that all people should act in the same
way.
Kant's theory would also imply that we cannot treat animals or the environment as a
means to an end, while Kant himself may be opposed to this.
Utilitarianism
Jeremy Bentham bases act utilitarianism on…

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Employees should be treated respectfully and in the criteria of their human rights.
Evaluation ­

Business and environment (Cowspiracy/Food Inc/exploiting farmers/toxicity)


Evaluation ­

Business and globalisation (immigrant exploitation)


Evaluation ­


Applied Ethics


SEXUAL ETHICS
There are said to be three purposes of sex;
Procreation
Union
Fidelity
Sex has been viewed…

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In the past, pre-marital sex used to be considered wrong often because of possible
consequences;
Conception
Detection
Infection
Evaluation ­ Pre-marital/Extra-marital sex
There is no issue or stigma regarding pre-marital sex in contemporary
societies; what were seen as problems of it in the past can be solved now
with developed…

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Utilitarianism
Bentham, an act utilitarian, would argue that mutual consent for pleasure cannot
make any sexual act wrong if both partners are willing.
However, there is the possible harm to society from the act, for example undermining
marriage, disrupting family life, issues with the law.
Bentham would ultimately suggest we…

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Natural Law
Natural Law is completely opposed to contraception because the couple would not
be fulfilling the primary precept of procreation. If the sexual act does not lead to
children then the sexual act is immoral, unnatural and intrinsically wrong.
Aquinas focuses too much on the biological purpose of sex;…

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Natural Law condemns the homosexual act; however, they view homosexual
orientation as a disorder, through genes. Aquinas believes it is not inherently wrong
to be homosexual, but it is an intrinsic evil if someone commits a homosexual act. It
is condemned as the sexual act cannot produce children.
The 2004…

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