Anti-Social behaviour on Aggression & Environmental Stressors

This is for AQA Psychology A2, from Pro and Anti Social Behaviour.

Aggression and environmental stressors.

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Anti Social Behaviour on Aggression & Environmental Stressors
Explanations/ Theories of Aggression
What is aggression: Personorientated instrumental Reactive Proactive.
1. Social Learning Theory
1. Aggression is learnt through observation
2. Does not ignore biology but states expression of aggression must be learnt.
3. Role models, particularly ones that are admired
4. Vicarious reinforcement
5. Mental representations/ reinforcement
6. Selfefficacy
Bandura (1961) the Bobo doll study
Bandura + Walters (1963) Bobo 2
Walters + Thomas (1963) Film and shocks.
2. Deindividuation
1. Fraser + Burchell (2001) `a process whereby normal constraints on behaviour are weakened as persons lose
their sense of individuality'.
2. Crowds/ groups, anonymity, altered states
3. Process of Deindividuation ­ include faceless crowd
4. Old Theory
5. New idea of self restraint
Zimbardo (1969) female lab coats and shocks.
Diener et al (1976) 1300 kids trick or treating.
Watson (1973) 23 different war orientated cultures face paint/ masks.
PrenticeDunn + Rogers (1982) 2 rooms: internal and external attention focuses.
Effects of Environmental Stressors on Aggressive behaviour
1. Temperature
Natural Studies:
Anderson (1989) Hotter regions of the world have more aggression than cooler regions hotter years, seasons and
days tend to have more incidents of violent crimes.
Kenrick + MacFarlane (1986) Drivers honk their horns more in response to a car blocking the road at a traffic light
as the temp rose.
Lab studies:
Halpern (1995) As temp rises so does aggression, but only to a certain point, after which it begins to decline. At
higher temps, the motivation to escape replaces the motivation to aggress.
Seasonal temp variations ­ people are more likely to be outside in summer so are more likely to come into
contact with others domestic violence is at its highest in the summer, but indoor temps do not vary much. Temp
unlikely to be responsible for aggression.
Moghaddam (1998) 1) Peak periods of homicide in the USA are late summer and December, people are most
socially active. 2) High temps can change the way people interpret ambiguous situations and predispose a person
towards an aggressive response.
Baron + Bell (1976) Participants that were cold and angry display more aggression than those who were hot and
2. Noise
Manstead et al (1995) Noise may affect a person's ability to deal with frustration raises a person's level of arousal.
Donnerstein + Wilson (1976) 1) Quiet room, loud room, loud room with control to turn it off & shocks. 2) Maths
problems with same conditions.
Evans et al (1998) 78 yr old kids in Germany. Half of children lived in new airport's flight plan, others lived in quiet
areas. Blood pressure, stress hormone levels, quality of life. Noise group: higher stress levels & mentioned
declined quality of life quiet group: no changes.
3. Crowding ­ Stimulus Overload/ Behavioural constraint/ Ecological model
Sears et al (1988) Expectations on the use of space are violated by the presence of others ­ crowding.
Horn (1994) Social density is seen as undesirable, social outcomes are more aggressive, negative and less
cooperation occurs.
Schettino and Borden (1975) Ratio of people in a classroom to total no. of seats as a measure of density, males
felt an increase in aggression as density increased. Females felt less aggressive.

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Paulus (1977) High social density will produce negative effects more consistently than high special density. Cities
contain more stressful environmental features. Urban dwellers complain more about crowding than rurals.
Freedman (1973) Physiological arousal of a crowd heightens the mood you are in, i.e. rock concert.…read more


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