aNSWERS TO DEVELOPEMENT QUESTIONS GCSE GEO

aNSWERS TO DEVELOPEMENT QUESTIONS GCSE GEO

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GCSE DEVELOPMENT
ANSWERS TO QUESTION 1
(a) (i) 1. the UK: 15 deaths per thousand live births (accept 14 - 16)
2. Malawi: 165 deaths per thousand live births (accept 164 - 166) 2x1
(ii) 1. The least food per person: Nepal
2. The most food for each person: UK 2x1
(iii) Group A: more economically developed (MEDC) or `western' countries
Group B: less economically developed (LEDC) or `developing' or Third World 2x1
(iv) * Haiti
* Burkina Faso 2x1
(b) Differences between Group A and B:
* infant mortality rate - A are very low (all under 20 per thousand), B very high (most above 120
per thousand)
* average food supply - A is very high, all (at least 15%) above daily requirement, B low, all
below daily requirement, Nepal is 25% below.
H candidates should/will use statistics. One mark per comparison.
Reasons - Group A:
* technologically advanced countries
* with temperate climates and fertile soils
* so capital intensive commercial farming
* abundant food supplies
* for very low birth rates (UK 14 per thousand, Japan 12 per thousand)
Any three.
Reasons - Group B:
* LEDCs or less industrialised countries
* practise subsistence agriculture in difficult conditions
* Nepal is mountainous with soil erosion/Burkina Faso is savanna/semi-desert with seasonal
drought etc.
* therefore inadequate/poor food supply
* but very high birth rates - Malawi 55 per thousand, Burkina Faso 47 per thousand.
Any three. 2+3+3
(c) (i) 1. Adult literacy rate: the percentage (not number) of adults (16 years+) in a country/population
that can read and write.
2. Infant mortality rate: the number of deaths of babies aged 0 -1 year old per thousand live births
per year. 2x1
(ii) Development indicators not given in group 1 or 2 include:
* average energy consumption per person per day
* average calorie intake per person per day
* number of doctors per thousand people 1
(d) (i) The table shows three different levels of economic development:
* MEDCs/rich `North' with high standards of living, long life expectancy etc. (UK = US$ 16,750, 77 years)
* Newly industrialising countries (NICs)/developing countries with improving standards of living,
literacy rates etc. (Mexico US$ 2990, 85%)
* the least economically developed countries (LEDCs)/Third World/underdeveloped countries
whose standards of living are not improving, i.e. Niger (Mali, Sierra Leone etc)
H candidates should use statistics. 4x1
(ii) The table shows that Mexico is a NIC because:
* GNP per person US$ 2990 could not be achieved by subsistence agriculture alone
* agriculture must be mechanised to release labour for industry/economic development
* industrialisation pay for higher standards of living, longer life expectancy (70years) and 85%
adult literacy rates.
Any two. 2x1

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The use of only one indicator does not give a fully accurate picture of life in the country:
* GNP per person is a measure of average wealth
* which could be distorted by a very wealthy sector of society, e.g. oil-rich sheik's in countries
like Saudi Arabia
* GNP per person in 1996 US $ 11,240 but a significant proportion of the population is very poor
* need to use a range of socio-economic indicators which measures all members/aspects of
society
* e.g.…read more

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GCSE DEVELOPMENT
ANSWERS TO QUESTION 2
(a) (i) The GNP of a country:
* is an estimate of the value of a country's production in US dollars
* measures the value of goods and services produced in a country, plus the balance, positive or
negative of income from abroad (includes "invisibles") 2x1
(ii) Pair 1: MEDCs and high GNP per person
Pair 2: LEDCs and low GNP per person 2x1
(iii) Ways of measuring how the wealth/lifestyle of people varies from country to country include:…read more

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GCSE POPULATION
ANSWERS TO QUESTION 3
(a) Most/fastest economic development has taken place in the `North' or converse. 1
(b) (i) Life expectancy means the number of years that a child born today can expect to live at current
mortality rates (figure is the average of that for men and women).…read more

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GCSE DEVELOPMENT
ANSWERS TO QUESTION 4
(a) (i) Factors that would indicate that people are living in severe poverty (in rank order of validity):
1. Exchange calorie intake per person per day
2. Energy consumption per person per year
3. Infant mortality rates
4. Gross Domestic Product per person per year (not GNP per person per year)
5. Adult literacy rates
6. Number of people per doctor
Any two.…read more

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Short term aid means measures which address/tackle the primary (immediate) impacts/effects of
the catastrophe, e.g. thirst, hunger, injury, illness etc.…read more

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GCSE DEVELOPMENT
ANSWERS TO QUESTION 5
(a) (i) 1. The most prosperous place in Britain: Winchester
2. The least prosperous place in Britain: Consett 2x1
(ii) 1. The most prosperous places are generally market towns in the London commuter belt.
2. The least prosperous places are generally urban settlements in the old industrial areas.…read more

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Below are two case studies of how city authorities have raised the quality of life in inner city areas
in MEDCs:
Osaka - Kobe cities on Honshu Island, Japan:
* severe overcrowding = 10,000 people per km2, average house size 4.5 metres2 (x8 smaller than UK)
* Port Island and Rokko Island both reclaimed (built) from the sea
* purpose designed and built towns with spacious 3 room houses
Four marks.…read more

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GCSE DEVELOPMENT
ANSWERS TO QUESTION 6
(a) (i) South-east 1
(ii) Four 1
(iii) GNP is the total value of all the goods and services produced by a country in one year, usually
calculated in US Dollars - for comparability between countries.…read more

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