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1. The heart of a mammal contains four main chambers. The action of these chambers is
coordinated by electrical activity in specialised tissues.

The figure below shows where these tissues are found in the heart.






(i) Name the tissues labelled T, U and V.

T ........SAN............................................................

U ........AVN............................................................

V ........Purkayne…

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(ii) Describe how the action of the heart is initiated and coordinated.

In your answer, you should use appropriate technical terms, spelt correctly.





The action of the heart is initiated by SAN sending a wave of excitation (electrical
activity) from the right atrium to the atrial walls. This makes the…

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(ii) State two other ways in which the wall of an artery is different from the wall of a
vein.

1 ......................................................................................................................

The walls of artery is thick but veins are thin.



2 ......................................................................................................................

The artery have smaller lumen than the vein.




[2]
[Total 3 marks]









Quintin Kynaston School 3

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3. (a) The diagram below shows some mammalian blood vessels in cross section.




Vessel X is an artery. Its magnification is given on the diagram.






Quintin Kynaston School 4

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Calculate the actual width of the vessel in mm between points E and F. Show
your working and express your answer to the nearest whole number.



Actual size= Image size divided by magnification



85 Divided by 12=7.083




Answer = .........7......................... mm
[2]



(b) In this question, one mark is available…

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4. In this question, one mark is available for the quality of spelling, punctuation and
grammar.

The diagram below shows the internal structure of the mammalian heart and
associated blood vessels.




Veins, such as the vena cava shown on the figure above, all have a similar structure.
Describe the structure…

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5. The diagram below shows the formation and drainage of tissue fluid in a mammal.




Quintin Kynaston School 7

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(a) (i) Complete the table to give three differences between tissue fluid and
blood.

tissue fluid blood

Tissue fluid doesn't have platelets Blood have platelets




They have very few proteins They have proteins




They don't have blood cells They have blood cells




[3]



(ii) Name the type of vessel labelled…

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(c) Suggest what could happen in the tissues of a person if the drainage at S and T
was inefficient.

.........The tissue swells, you might lose blood.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

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[2]
[Total 13 marks]




6. The figure below is an electron micrograph of xylem tissue in the stem of a…

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(ii) The spiral band in the xylem vessel shown in the figure above contains a
substance called lignin.

State the function of this spiral band of lignin and explain why it is important that
the xylem vessel becomes lignified in this way.

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[3]…

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