Animal Phyla

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Animal Phyla The chitin exoskeleton protects the vital organs, All vertebrates have a vertebral column and
reduces water loss, supports the insect, point of have a developed brain, which is protected by the
There are four main groups;- attachment for the muscles and protects the cranium
- Annelids - worms organism from predators.
- Arthropods - insects The disadvantages of having an exoskeleton are
- Insects that it's fixed in size, so that animal has to shed
its exoskeleton, called ecdysis, and grow a new
- Vertebrates ­ fish, birds, reptiles, one which takes time to harden.
mammals and amphibians This leaves the animal vulnerable to predators.
SAME!!! Insects:
This is the most successful group of animals,
Annelids: conquering land, air and water.
Members include worms, tapeworms and While insects are classed into the arthropods
earthworms. phylum but are sub-classed as insects due to;-
The features include;- - three pairs of jointed legs
- a thin, segmented body - head antennae and compound eyes
- segments are specialised for a particular - gas exchange via gills or tracheae
function - wings
- hydrostatic skeleton for water support - 2 pairs of wings and 3 pairs of legs are
- closed circulation system with respiratory characteristics of insects. However, fleas
pigments and lice have evolved to lose these
- thin, permeable skin for gas exchange features.
- partitioned body (septa)
- haemocoel which is a fluid filled body Vertebrates:
cavity There are five vertebrate groups;-
- Primitive brain in head and nervous - fish
system along the body. - reptiles
- amphibians
Arthropods: - birds
Members include millipedes, centipedes, - mammals
crustaceans, spiders and insects.
The features include;- Fish characteristics ­ gills, scales and fins
- body divided into three segments Reptile characteristics ­ land-living, dry scaly
- head, thorax and abdomen skin, eggs are laid on land but fertilised internally.
- well-developed brain Amphibians ­ soft moist skin, young are aquatic
- chitin exoskeleton with gills, adults are land living with simple lungs.
- open circulation Mammal characteristics ­ skin has hairs, give
- cavity surrounding the body organs birth to live young, feed young with milk. Divided
into another two groups, marsupials (babies born
- Paired, jointed legs. and kept in pouches) and placentals.
There are two evolutionary developments for Marsupials ­ young are very immature at birth
arthropods, which are jointed les and chitin and develop in the mother's pouch.
exoskeleton. Placentals ­ young develop in the womb and
The joined legs are used for walking, swimming, obtain nourishment through the placenta before
feeding, reproducing, jumping and ventilation. birth.


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