Slides in this set
· Adapted by environment · Present behaviour at birth e.
· Not inherited g. Reflexes
· Can be altered by · Inherited from a parent, so
experience. present in genetic code.
· Can differ in members of the ·No environmental influence.
species. · Evolutionary survival
·Learn via intellectual activity. advantage.
·Rigid and inflexible.
·Same throughout a species
· Species has no sense to the
purpose of the behaviour.…read more
Reflexes Escape reflexes can help avoid
predators e.g. Earthworms retreat
underground when sense vibrations.
Taxis Is a directional orientational response e.
g. Positive Phototaxis is towards a light source,
where as negative chemotaxis is away from a
chemical. (Think of the Stevie Wonder worm)
Kenesis Random orientational response,
random movement unconsciously seeking out a
desirable environment e.g. In woodlice.…read more
More Complex Innate
Bees perform something known as the
waggle dance to others in order to
point out how far and in what
direction a source of food is. As seen
in this video:
· Habituation An animal learns to ignore stimuli that are not
rewarding or harmful. This is how birds learn to ignore
· Imprinting - An animal imitates the first living creature it see's and
will only then learn from this animal. This can only happen during
a sensitive period. Research was done by Conrad Lorenz.
· Classical conditioning A response is given by an conditioned
stimuli. Pavlov's dogs is the most famous examples.
· Operant conditioning Animals learn by doing a certain action
they are rewarded or punished. Skinner's box used rats and
· Latent (exploratory) learning In order to escape from predation
in the future an animal learns it's environment well. Such as a
rabbit leaning the route of burrows to run to when being chased.
· Insight learning this is the most intellegent form of learning,
where an animal uses thought and reasoning to solve problems.
Wolfgang Kohler found this out in an experiment with Monkey's…read more
· Primates include : Apes, monkeys and
· Young stay in the group until they reach
· There is a hierarchy for protection.
· Primates have highly developed cerebral
cortex, which is linked with social
· All social behaviours are learnt in the
dependency period of offspring.…read more