Anatomy and Physiology notes

Notes on anatomy and physiology

Section A Edexcel

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Section A ­ Exercise and Training
Reasons For Taking Part in Activity:
Health
We are very healthconscious today and most of us are aware of the
benefits of regular physical activity
Look and feel good
Maintain good muscle tone and keep body in good shape
Improves selfimage and selfconfidence
Increase flexibility
Increase muscle strength and muscle tone
Enhance body shape
Control our weight
Maintain good health
Enhance enjoyment of life
More active often = better health
Tests physical qualities
Strength
Endurance
Tests mental qualities
Determination
Perseverance
Meeting a challenge is satisfying
Benefits

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Mental
Relieves stress and tension
Reduces blood pressure
Helps us to relax
May help with depression, insomnia and anxiety
Offers us an aesthetic experience
Social
Cooperation
Teamwork
Competition
Friends
Influences
Home
Family
Role models from parents and older siblings
Friends and peers
Often do the same things as friends
Social class
Affects activity because of finances etc.
Financial situation
Some sports are more expensive e.g.…read more

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School
Importance given to PE and sport
PE Lessons
May enjoy new sports which are taught in lessons
PE Staff
Enthusiasm and encouragement of teachers may encourage us to take up a new sport
Health, Fitness, Exercise and Performance
What is Health?
`a state of complete mental, physical and social wellbeing and not
merely the absence of disease or infirmity'
Good health:
Eating sensibly
Taking regular physical exercise
Getting regular rest and sleep
Limiting alcohol intake
Not smoking or taking social drugs
Improve ability to…read more

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Able to cope with stress and tensions of everyday life by relaxing and developing leisure
interests
Able to control emotions, bringing stability to our behaviour
Social wellbeing
We need the company of other people in order to develop friendships and good personal
relationships
Improve our selfesteem and feel good about ourselves when we feel that other people
value us
What is Exercise?
`A form of physical activity done primarily to improve one's health and
fitness'
should exercise 3+ times for at least 20 minutes
Benefits…read more

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Improved control of emotions
Improved selfesteem and self confidence
Social benefits
Opportunities to meet other and develop friendships
Improved communication skills
Opportunities to develop cooperation and teamwork
What is performance?
`How well a task is completed'
What is Physical Fitness?
`the ability to meet the demands of the environment'
Health Related Fitness (HRF)
Muscular strength: the ability of a muscle or a muscle group to apply
force and overcome resistance
Rowing
Wrestling
High jump
Hammer
Cardiovascular Fitness:
Rowing
400m800m running
Football
Long distance running
Muscular…read more

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­ 800m running
Long distance running
Flexibility:
Ballet
High jump
Hurdles
Body composition: refers to the proportions of lean body mass and
body fat mass
Ballet
Wrestling
High jump
Hammer
Body size: height compared to weight
Body type: a way of describing a person's physique based on muscularity, linearity and
fatness
Endomorphs: pearshaped, wide hips and wide shoulders, rounded head, lot of fat on the body
­ near the END of their life
Mesomorphs: wedgeshaped body, wide shoulders, narrow hips, massive cubical head, broad
shoulders…read more

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Big Macs Make Children Fat
Body Fat Can't Make Muscles
Skill Related Fitness
Agility: The ability to change direction accurately and quickly
Hammer
Skiing
Tennis
Football
High jump
Balance: The ability to maintain the equilibrium of the body
Fencing
Ballet
Skiing
Windsurfing
Hammer
CoOrdination: the ability to use 2 or more body parts together
Ballet
Skiing
Windsurfing
Tennis
High jump
Long distance
Hammer…read more

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Power: The ability to execute strength performances quickly
Rowing
Sprint start
Hammer
Reaction time: the time required to respond to a given stimulus
Fencing
Sprint start
Tennis
Speed:
Sprint-start
Skiing
400m ­ 800m running
football
A.B.C. Paul Richard Sarah
Powerful Crabs React Badly At Speed
Principles of Training
Methods of Training
Interval training: when exercise is alternated with rest periods
E.g.…read more

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Fartlek Training (Swedish word, literally meaning speedplay): training at
different speeds of different terrains
E.g.…read more

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Epiphysis: head of the bone
Ossification: the growth and development of bones
Periosteum: tough skinlike membrane surrounding the bone
Skeleton: the bony framework of the body
Cancellous (spongy) bone: a honeycomb like substance, which is hard,
light and very strong.…read more

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