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Aim and purpose
This unit aims to enable learners to understand aspects of the anatomy and
physiology of human body systems. Learners will be able to gain an overview of
the organisation of the human body before looking at how body systems work
together to provide energy for the body. Learners will have the opportunity to
investigate how homeostatic mechanisms operate in the body.…read more

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P1 Describe the functions of the main cells components
Cells are the basic units if organisms in which all living things are made. The
appearance of the cells depends of the area it is located at and the functions within the
organism. A cell consists of many components. These are plasma membrane, the
cytoplasm, the endo reticulum (rough and smooth), Golgi apparatus, lysosomes,
mitochondrion and the nucleus.…read more

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It is represented by the gelatin.
The nucleus is the largest structure within the cell, containing many organelles. It is
usually found in the middle of the cell, but in some plant cells it can be found at the
bottom. The function of the nucleus is very important because it controls what the cell
does, as well as containing instructions on how to make new cells. It is Spherical body
containing many organelles, including the nucleolus.…read more

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Ribosome small organelles composed of RNArich cytoplasmic granules that are
sites of protein synthesis. They are represented by candy sprinkles.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER) a vast system of interconnected,
membranous, infolded and convoluted sacks that are located in the cell's cytoplasm (the
ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane). Rough ER is covered with
ribosomes that give it a rough appearance.…read more

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P2: outline the structure of the main tissues of the body and their
role in the functioning of two named body systems.
Tissues are groups of similar cells carryout specific functions in thin unit, and it is
also a nonliving material called intercellular matrix, fills the spaces between the
These are the types of tissues:
Nervous.…read more

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The fluidfilled body cavities (or parts of the coelom) are also lined
with simple squamous epithelium, here called mesothelium. This slide is a whole
mount of sheet of mesothelium and does not contain other tissues. However,
remember that it is not a cross section, so you are looking down on cells.
Simple cuboidal_ are epithelial cells in a single layer of cube like cells with
large, spherical central nuclei.…read more

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Although this epithelium is referred to
as squamous, many cells within the layers may not be flattened this is due to the
convention of naming epithelia according to the cell type at the surface. In the
deeper layers, the cells may be columnar or cuboidal. This type of epithelium is
well suited to areas in the body subject to constant abrasion, as it is the thickest
and layers can be sequentially sloughed off and replaced before the basement
membrane is exposed.…read more

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In animals, most of the body's cells are arranged into tissues
The structure of tissues relates to their specific functions
There are four main types of animal tissues: epithelial, connective, muscle,
Epithelial tissue covers the body and lines its organs and cavities
Epithelial tissue: sheets of tightly packed cells that cover body surfaces and line
internal organs and cavities
The base (basal) layer of epithelial tissue is attached to a dense layer of
extracellular matrix
Contains fibrous proteins and sticky polysaccharides
The free (apical)…read more

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Contains a web of fibers embedded in a liquid, jelly, or solid
Loose connective tissue: binding and packing material to hold organs in place
Fibers are mainly loosely woven collagen and elastic
Fibrous connective tissue: tendons and ligaments
Fibers are densely packed bundles of collagen
Adipose tissue: pads and insulates the body and stores energy
Stores fat within cells
Little matrix
Cartilage: shock absorber in joints, nose, and ears
Many collagen fibers embedded in a rubbery matrix
Bone: support structure
Collagen fibers embedded in a…read more



this was really good. have u done unit 3

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