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The Sovereignty of the Individual
· Each individual is different, sovereign over
· Socialists and communists believe humankind is
social; there is a natural independence
· Bakunin disagreed with this, suggesting we are
bound by a form of natural law, dictating we
behave in a social order: "Social solidarity is the
first human law, freedom is the second law."
· Kropotkin argued that given free will, any moral
human being will either form natural communities
or be nomadic…read more

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The nature of liberty
· All individuals are born free and should remain so
· Anarchists view negative liberty as external restraint
· Would the world dissolve into a state of fear and war
under anarchism?
1. Optimistic view on nature ­ as long as we are able to live
a normal, moral and enlightened existence, we will take
others into account
2. Internal restraint (Godwin: `private judgement') Bakunin
asserted that humankind in a natural state is bound by
natural laws.
· Critics concentrate on anarchist assertion that
humankind is naturally good.…read more

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Opposition to Property
· Some contemporary anarcho-capitalists (libertarians),
such as Robert Nozick, have asserted that private
property is acceptable as long as it has been legally and
justly obtained ­ the state should not be allowed to
interfere with the ownership of property and its uses/
· Proudhon: despite "All property is theft", he viewed it
as a necessary evil in modern society
· Most anarchists believe social justice can be achieved
after the abolition of private property
· The state is the protector of property interests
· The state should not be the vehicle for common
ownership…read more

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Critique of Capitalism
· Some contemporary libertarian anarchists support
the maintenance of free-market capitalism
· Most anarchists view capitalism as the root of all
· 19th Century anarchists, e.g. Bakunin and
Kropotkin, saw the working class and peasantry as
victims of capitalist exploitation
· Anarcho-syndicalists ­ workers would seize
control of the instruments of capitalist domination
and run them in interests of all.…read more

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Critique of Capitalism
· Contemporary anarchists have turned their
attention to the way in which international
capitalism is exploiting workers and peasants in
poor countries and exploiting consumers.
· Eco-anarchists ­ degradation of natural
environment is a direct consequence of capitalism
· Capitalism creates inequality, a threat to freedom
· Anarchists also reject nationalism and religion;
they see both as artificial creations designed to
rob people of their personal liberty…read more

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