Amino Acids And Proteins - OCR

Revision notes on biochemistry: amino acids and proteins for A2 Chemistry.

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Polymers of amino acids
= 1st C after the COOH group
NH2 + COOH joined to the same C
Every Amino acid has an optical isomer
Except for
1) Add Alkali
2) Add Acid
3) In Neutral
Isoelectric point is the pH value when the amino acids overall net charge is neutral
o Higher than the Zwitter ion = Alkali
o Lower than the Zwitter ion = Acid
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Protein structure
Primary structure
The sequence of the amino acids
R­R'­R''R''­R'­RNOTE: these two chains aren't the same
Secondary structure
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Parts where there is no definite secondary structure
Tertiary Structure
Protein may be folded up into a complex 3D shape
i. Ionic Attractions
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Van de Waals Forces
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Hydrogen bonding
iv. Disulphide bridges
Strength of Intramolecular forces
1. Disulphide bridge
2. Hydrogen bonds + Ionic Bonds
3. Van De Waals forces
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Quaternary Structure
More than 1 identical subunit in the intact protein
e.g.…read more

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Hydrolysis of an Amino Acid ­ Breaks the peptide bond
o 6.0 mol dm-3 of conc.…read more


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