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Polymers of amino acids
= 1st C after the COOH group
NH2 + COOH joined to the same C

Every Amino acid has an optical isomer

Except for

1) Add Alkali

2) Add Acid

3) In Neutral

Isoelectric point is the pH value when the amino acids overall net…

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Protein structure

Primary structure

The sequence of the amino acids

R­R'­R''R''­R'­RNOTE: these two chains aren't the same

Secondary structure

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a) helix

b) pleated sheet

c) Parts where there is no definite secondary structure

Tertiary Structure

Protein may be folded up into a complex 3D shape

i. Ionic Attractions

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ii. Van de Waals Forces

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iii. Hydrogen bonding

iv. Disulphide bridges

Strength of Intramolecular forces

1. Disulphide bridge
2. Hydrogen bonds + Ionic Bonds
3. Van De Waals forces

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Quaternary Structure

More than 1 identical subunit in the intact protein

e.g. Haemoglobin

o 4 proteins + Fe2+ 2
Each chain has a heam group with an Fe2+ ion at the centre o the ring structure
o Four dative covalent bonds from atom (heam group)
in the ring

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Hydrolysis of an Amino Acid ­ Breaks the peptide bond
o 6.0 mol dm-3 of conc. HCl heated in a reflux 10­24 hours

Microwave ­ breaks Hydrogen bonds
o targets the specific wavelength of the ­O-H bond and breaks that bond

Radiation ­ Disrupts ionic links
o knocks out many…


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