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Page 1

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Proteins

Polymers of amino acids
= 1st C after the COOH group
NH2 + COOH joined to the same C




Every Amino acid has an optical isomer




Except for




1) Add Alkali




2) Add Acid




3) In Neutral




Isoelectric point is the pH value when the amino acids overall net…

Page 2

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Dipeptides




Protein structure

Primary structure

The sequence of the amino acids

R­R'­R''R''­R'­RNOTE: these two chains aren't the same

Secondary structure




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a) helix




b) pleated sheet




c) Parts where there is no definite secondary structure

Tertiary Structure

Protein may be folded up into a complex 3D shape

i. Ionic Attractions


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ii. Van de Waals Forces




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iii. Hydrogen bonding




iv. Disulphide bridges




Strength of Intramolecular forces

1. Disulphide bridge
2. Hydrogen bonds + Ionic Bonds
3. Van De Waals forces




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Quaternary Structure

More than 1 identical subunit in the intact protein

e.g. Haemoglobin

o 4 proteins + Fe2+ 2
2
Each chain has a heam group with an Fe2+ ion at the centre o the ring structure
o Four dative covalent bonds from atom (heam group)
in the ring
o…

Page 7

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Hydrolysis of an Amino Acid ­ Breaks the peptide bond
o 6.0 mol dm-3 of conc. HCl heated in a reflux 10­24 hours

Microwave ­ breaks Hydrogen bonds
o targets the specific wavelength of the ­O-H bond and breaks that bond

Radiation ­ Disrupts ionic links
o knocks out many…

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