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Brown V Topeka Board of Education, 1954

May 1954: Oliver Brown uses the Supreme Court ruling to take the city of Kansas
to court ­ for forcing his daughter to attend a blacks only school a mile away,
instead of being able to go to a whites only school 7…

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Bus Boycott, 1955

ROSA PARKS: Had been involved with the NAACP since the early 1940s.
Rosa had clashed with driver James Blake in 1943, and got on his bus in
1955 by mistake!
Parks was perfect for the media: she was very respectable, a Christian
and a valued member of…

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6. Desegregated buses began running Dec 1956.

Public awareness.
Change of laws due to the loss of income.
Buses de-segregated.
A success for MLK and his peaceful protest/passive resistance approach
United black people.
What was achieved?
Segregation still on interstate buses as well as segregation in other public areas

Page 5

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Little Rock, 1957

The governor of Arkansas, Orval Faubus, was determined not to let desegregation happen.
He ordered the National Guard to keep the peace at the school.
Daisy Bates organised a police escort for the 9 ­ but failed to get in touch with Elizabeth Eckford.

4th Sept 1957:…

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It indicated to the rest of the world that the USA had an oppressive nature, and that it was hypocritical in its
criticism of Communist Russia on its human rights.
This put pressure on the government to address Civil Rights issues.
It also alerted American citizens about the extent of…

Page 7

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May 1961: James Farmer of CORE organised the `Freedom Rides', during which
young people tried to test out their legal right to travel on interstate buses. It
involved simply taking an interstate bus from Washington DC through the southern

This was an act of calculated martyrdom ­ the riders…

Page 8

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The demonstrations in Birmingham began with sitins at lunch counters, and progressed with a number of marches,
during one of which King was arrested.

In response to the protests, Connor ordered his police department to use fire
hoses, police dogs, and batons to break up the demonstrations.
Arrests reached 500…

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>250,000 campaigners.
75% of the marchers were black.

Credited for helping to pass the Civil Rights Act (1964) and the Voting Rights Act (1965).
Marked the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation by Lincoln.
Martin Luther King gave his "I Have A Dream" speech.
First live international…

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Stated that all Americans were entitles to equal employment opportunities
Stated that all Federal projects must include racial integration
The Civil Rights Act, 1964, outlawed racial discrimination and segregation in all walks of American life.

Banned discrimination in public places.
School integration encouraged.
Govt agencies integrated - segregated organisations not…


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