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Alternative to the Multi- Store Model of Memory
The level of processing model was introduced by Craik and Robert Lockhart in 1972, who disagreed
with Atkinson and Shiffrin's ideas that memory consisted of separate stores. Instead, rather than
focusing on stores and how information is transferred from one store to another, they focused on
how information is encoded and processed.
At the shallowest level information are processed visually in terms of their physical importance. At
the deeper level, words are processed acoustically in terms of sound; this is a deeper level of
processing since it involves an analysis of both the appearance of the word and it sound. At the
deepest level, words are processed semantically in terms of their meaning.
Claik and Lockhart claimed that the deeper the level of processing, the easier the information is to
recall, they also distinguished between two types of rehearsal. Simple Maintenance Rehearsal -
Holding information to prevent it from being forgotten in the short term memory. Elaborative
Rehearsal increase the depth at which information is processed, this leads to long term memories.
Change of direction The Levels of processing model has changed the direction of research in to
memory, because it showed that encoding was not a straight forward process.
Supporting Evidence- It led to hundreds of experiments and studies, most of which confirmed the
superiority of deep semantic processing for remembering information.
Measurement- Ideas of depth and elaboration are vague and ill-defined; as a result the levels of
processing are difficult to measure.
Distinctiveness Later research indicated that processing is more complex and varied than the levels
of processing suggest, for example it is unusual to compare a doctor to a
misquote because both of them draw blood out of humans, therefore it stands
out and is easier to recall.
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Baddeley & Hitch (1974) believed that the STM store in the Multi store Model was too simplistic:
they thought that short term memory was not a passive store, but several
active stores that manipulate information.…read more
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The working memory model explains more than the multi store model, it makes sense of a
range of tasks such as reading, problem solving.
Can explain why brain damaged patients, selective deficits may occur in short term memory.
Baddeley et al (1975) Participants were given lists of short words and long words, he
found that the short words were recalled more. Since short words take less time to say this
supports the idea of phonological loop having a limited duration.…read more