ALL UNIT 1 NOTES OCR

This is a compilement of school notes, advanced notes and ocr book notes. 

I have personally taken the time as an AS student to make these this year and have decided to share them with you in hope that they are useful to you. 

i have checked the spec and also the book thoroughly. 

I reccommend the site http://asbiology101.wordpress.com/downloads/ for soley condensed OCR book notes and also questions that you are unlikely to find elsewhere

Good Luck and I hope this all helps you!!! :) 

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  • Created by: anushiee
  • Created on: 21-02-14 01:24
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UNIT Module : CELLS
1.1 LIVING ORGANISMS CONSIST OF CELLS

Key concepts

Cells are fundamental units of life
Microscopy can be used to understand cellular structure and function
Cells share many of the same organelles and are unique to certain cell types.
There are distinguishing differences between the cells of…

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1.2 CELL SIZE AND MAGNIFICATION




1.3 EM AND CELL DETAILS
o em max resolution = 0.2 nm
- produces e- micrographs
screen
photographic paper
o Industrial Uses
- generally: examine cells, micro-organisms, metals, crystals, & biopsy samples
-TEM: helps determine; ductility, strength, reactivity, melting point, hardness,
conductivity, and electrical properties…

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Anusha Subashkaran

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1.4 CELLS AND LIVING PROCESSES

common in muscle cells



need ATP

protein = microtubule motors

-needs ATP




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1.5 ORGANELLES; STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS

o Ultrastructure: details of inside of cell
o Organelle: each structure w/in cell
o Division of labour: specific role the structure has w/in cell
o RER function = transfers proteins made on attached ribosome.
o SER function = makes lipids required
o Mitochondrion function =…

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STAIN USE COLOURS SEEN


Methylene blue For staining living cells Dark blue nucleus, light blue
cytoplasm



Iodine solution For staining living plant cells Dark blue-black starch grains,
nucleus stains deeper yellow,
the cytoplasm stains a lighter
yellow


Acetic orcein For staining the nucleus and Red
chromosomes


Eosin Stains the cytoplasm…

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cylinder-shaped fibres
25 nm in diameter
made of protein Tubulin
move micro-organisms through liquid/ move liquid
microtubule motor proteins on microtubules can move organelle/cell contents along
fibres uses ATP



Cilia and flagella summary

o in eukaryotes, flagella and cilia structurally = the same
hair-like extension sticks out from cell surface…

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plant cell




animal cell




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SUMMARY OF ALL THE MICROSCOPES

Light Microscope

o 0.2 m resolution
o x1,500-2,000 max magnification
o Advantages:

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no vacuum needed
specimen dead/alive
cheap
no technical expertise needed
o Disadvantages:
2D
needs stains;
methylene blue DNA
acetin orcein DNA (dark red)
gentian violet bacterial cell wall
differential staining:
used to contrast sub-cellular parts against each other

TEM _ + SEM

o max magnification = x5000 - x 100,000…

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