All Theorists

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Theories of human behaviour:
Perspective Key points /outline Application ­ use by practitioners Criticisms/ problems
& Theorist
Psychodynamic 5 stages childhood - Early experiences first Practitioners need to recognise that ­ Unscientific- lack of evidence
4 years greatly influence personality Older persons so cant be proved
development Oral, anal, phallic,latency, ­ fixation with childhood
Freud genital
- Use of defence mechanisms Child seen as passive in the
Emotions and behaviours driven by ID, Ego -Understanding that unhappy childhood process ­ no active role
Superego ,
re-emerge as people are again
Stages need to be successfully resolved Focuses on peoples thoughts
fixation at each stage gives rise to specific
dependant on others
behaviours: Suppression/too much focus can ­ feelings of despair or depression and feeling rather than
be dangerous to healthy development ­ the behaviour is not aimed at them and stems behaviour
from something else (must not take it
Oral stage - passive, dependent, gullible, oral personally) Theory based on work as
pleasures eg smoking, eating drinking or therapist with mostly middle
suspicious and avoiding oral pleasure Children class middle aged female clients
Anal stage - stubborn, mean, obsessed with
­ their treatment of the children could affect
tidiness, organised or overgenerous, untidy,
open to views of others
that child for the rest of their life (if a Difficult to prove what has
Phallic stage -recklessness, risk taking, practitioner doesn't look after a child caused a particular behaviour
obsessed with sexual activity or timid and adequately, that child may develop trust issues etc. particularly if it is an older
avoiding reference to sexuality later on in life) person because it may have
Unconscious, Preconscious, conscious - ­ toddlers must do things for themselves
unconscious feelings direct the way we
happened a long time previously
otherwise they could develop feelings of
behave, people do not know why they behave self-doubt/inadequacy
in a certain way
­ school children must be encouraged to be
Ignores the influence of biology
active otherwise they may have little sense of on an individual's personality
Defence Mechanisms used and characteristics
regressions/repression/denial/displacement/ purpose later on in life
projection/rationalisation etc ­ use books, toys and role play to prepare child
for big event in their life to reduce anxiety (i.e.
new baby, operation)

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Theories of human behaviour:
Biological Related to the nature side of the Nature Vs. Older persons Only considers biological
Nurture debate.
Personality is determined by Genes. ­ A resident with an aggressive nature should explanations for behaviour and
Eysenck Trait theory ­ individuals can be placed at a point be able to display their aggression in an does not take certain life
on a continuum of personality between extremes. appropriate way i.e.…read more

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Theories of human behaviour:
Deficit Needs: ­ Love and Belonging: allowing frequent visiting
time = sense of family and love, group clubs (i.e. Circumstances cause levels of
gardening) = belonging hierarchy to change order e.g.
Physical Needs: food, warmth, shelter,
­ Self-esteem: allow individual to feel pride in natural disaster = will still have
work they have completed and praise i.e. love and belonging but will
gardening club prioritise basic needs.…read more

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Theories of human behaviour:
they actually learn much better
Accommodation: where the child has to fit ­ Encourage the child to join in and try new in groups
new knowledge into existing schemas (new
type of bird into bird schema)
experiences e.g. sensory activities with sand,
water and play dough = causes child to be Underestimated the abilities of
Assimilation: where a child has to change engaged and learn from activity younger children and
schemas when new information if received.…read more

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Theories of human behaviour:
Negative Reinforcement ­ making sure e.g. not being allowed on days out for a set Over-reliance of rewards can
that the child is aware of what the amount of time create a token economy where
consequences of a particular undesired people will only do things if
behaviour will be. Try to discourage Children they are rewarded for it. So,
behaviour being exhibited. ­ Providing rewards for good behaviour e.g.…read more

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Theories of human behaviour:
Role Models are significant people ­ If a child is praised for tidying up the
whose behaviour will be imitated e.g. classroom, the other children are more likely Suggests that children only
peers, teachers, parents, celebrities. to imitate this behaviour to also be praised. copy what they see and are not
biologically determined to
Retention is the process of exhibit certain behaviours, such
remembering what has been as aggression
observed so that it can be imitated.…read more


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