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C4 ­ Chemical Patterns
The Nucleus

The nucleus is the middle of an atom. It contains protons and neutrons. The
protons make the atom have a positive charge. Almost the whole mass of
the atom is concentrated in the nucleus , but it is tiny compared to the rest…

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History of the Periodic Table
In the 1800's the only thing they could measure was relative atomic mass, and so the known
elements were arranged in order of atomic mass.


In 1828 a man called Doberiner started to put this list of elements into groups based on their

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repeating patterns in the properties of the elements.

Elements with similar properties form columns. These vertical columns are called groups. The group
number tells you how many electrons there are in the outer shell. For example: group 1 elements all
have one electron in their outer shell and group 7…

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Ionic Bonding
When atoms lose or gain electrons they form charged particles called ions. Ions can be made from
single atoms or groups of atoms. When atoms lose or gain electrons, all they are trying to do is get a
full outer shell.

All the atoms in group 1 of…

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Group 1 ­ The Alkali Metals
Group 1 metals include lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium and francium. They all have one
outer shell electron, making them very reactive and give them all similar properties. When alkali
metals react they form similar compounds. The alkali metals are shiny when freshly cut,…

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Group 7 ­ The Halogens
Group 7 elements include fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine. They all have seven outer
electrons. This makes them very reactive, gives them similar properties and means they form similar
compounds to each other. The halogens form diatomic molecules which are pair of atoms.



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