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C6 ­ Chemical Synthesis
Industrial Chemical Synthesis
Chemical synthesis is the term to describe the process of making complex chemical compounds from
simpler ones.

The chemical industry makes useful products, such as food additives, cleaning products, drugs and

The Chemical Industry

Chemicals can be produced on a large or…

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Indicators contain dye that changes colour depending on whether it's above or below a certain ph.

Litmus paper is an easy way to find out if a solution is acidic or alkaline ­ it turns read if the solution is
acidic and blue if it is alkaline.

Universal indicator…

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Oxides, Hydroxides and Carbonates
Acid + metal oxide = salt + water

Acid + metal hydroxide = salt + water

Metal Oxide Reacting with Acids

Hydrochloric acid + copper oxide = copper chloride + water

2HCl (aq) + CuO(s) = CuCl2 (aq) + H2O(l)

Sulphuric acid + zinc oxide =…

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2. Risk Assessment

This is an assessment of anything in the process that could cause injury.

Identifying hazards
Assessing who might be harmed
Deciding what action can be taken to reduce the risk

3. Calculating the Quantities of Reactions

This includes a lot of maths and a balanced symbol equation.…

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It can be used in purification as well. For example solid impurities in the reaction mixture can
be separated out using filtration.

Evaporation and Crystallisation ­ used to separate a soluble solid from solution.

Heating up the solution causes the solute to evaporate, leaving behind solid crystals of the

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Titrations can't be carried out with solids ­ only liquids. So any solid alkali or acid being tested needs
to be made into a solution.

1. If the substance is a solid lump, it can help to first crush it into a powder.
2. Put a titration flask onto a…

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If the reaction is endothermic heat needs to be provided, otherwise the reaction mixture
might become too cold.
This could slow down the rate of reaction or cause the reaction mixture to freeze, which
could damage equipment and stop the whole process.

Rate of Reaction
The rate of a chemical…

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Increasing Concentration

If a solution is made more concentrated it means there are more particles of reactant
knocking about in the same volume of water
This makes the collisions between reactant particles more likely.

Smaller Product

If one of the reactants is a solid then breaking it up into smaller…

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3. Volume of Gas Given Off

This involves the use of a gas syringe to measure the volume of gas given off.
The more gas given off during a given time interval, the faster the reaction.
A graph of gas volume against time could be plotted to give a rate…


megan barrett


this is so good thank you sooooo much ***



Do we need to include quotes when doing from the gospel? o;?

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