All revision notes for c6

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C6 ­ Chemical Synthesis
Industrial Chemical Synthesis
Chemical synthesis is the term to describe the process of making complex chemical compounds from
simpler ones.
The chemical industry makes useful products, such as food additives, cleaning products, drugs and
The Chemical Industry
Chemicals can be produced on a large or small scale
Some chemicals are produced on a massive scale ­ over 150million tonnes of sulphuric acid
are produced around the world every year.
Sulphuric acid has loads of different uses ­ car batteries and fertiliser production.
Other chemicals are produced on a smaller scale, but this doesn't make them any less
important ­ we just need less of them.
There are loads of different sectors within the chemical industry
In the UK, the chemical industry makes up a significant chunk of the economy
In the UK alone, there are 200,000 people employed in the chemical industry
Some chemicals are sold directly to customers, while others are sold to other industries as
raw materials for other products
The pharmaceutical industry has the largest share of the industry.
Acids and Alkalis
PH scale:
Pure acidic compounds can be solids (citric acid, used as a food additive), liquids (sulphuric acid, nitric
acid and ethanoic acid, used in vinegar) or gases (hydrogen chloride).
Common alkalis include sodium hydroxide (used in bleach) potassium hydroxide (used in alkaline
batteries) and calcium hydroxide (used to neutralise acidic solids).

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Indicators contain dye that changes colour depending on whether it's above or below a certain ph.
Litmus paper is an easy way to find out if a solution is acidic or alkaline ­ it turns read if the solution is
acidic and blue if it is alkaline.
Universal indicator is a very useful combination of dyes, which gives the colours shown above. It is
useful for estimating the ph of a solution.…read more

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Oxides, Hydroxides and Carbonates
Acid + metal oxide = salt + water
Acid + metal hydroxide = salt + water
Metal Oxide Reacting with Acids
Hydrochloric acid + copper oxide = copper chloride + water
2HCl (aq) + CuO(s) = CuCl2 (aq) + H2O(l)
Sulphuric acid + zinc oxide = zinc sulphate + water
H2SO4 (aq) + ZnO(s) = ZnSO4 (aq) + H2O (l)
Metal Hydroxides Reacting with Acids
Hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide = sodium chloride + water
HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) =…read more

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Risk Assessment
This is an assessment of anything in the process that could cause injury.
Identifying hazards
Assessing who might be harmed
Deciding what action can be taken to reduce the risk
3. Calculating the Quantities of Reactions
This includes a lot of maths and a balanced symbol equation. Using the equation chemists can
calculate how much of each reactant is needed to produce a certain amount of product.…read more

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It can be used in purification as well. For example solid impurities in the reaction mixture can
be separated out using filtration.
Evaporation and Crystallisation ­ used to separate a soluble solid from solution.
Heating up the solution causes the solute to evaporate, leaving behind solid crystals of the
This is also useful for purifying the product. The crystals have a regular structure that the
impurities can't fit into.
This process is often repeated over and over again to improve the purity.…read more

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Titrations can't be carried out with solids ­ only liquids. So any solid alkali or acid being tested needs
to be made into a solution.
1. If the substance is a solid lump, it can help to first crush it into a powder.
2. Put a titration flask onto a balance.
3. Carefully weigh some of the powder into the flask.
4. Add a solvent to dissolve the powder
5. Finally, swirl the titration flask until the entire solid has dissolved.…read more

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If the reaction is endothermic heat needs to be provided, otherwise the reaction mixture
might become too cold.
This could slow down the rate of reaction or cause the reaction mixture to freeze, which
could damage equipment and stop the whole process.
Rate of Reaction
The rate of a chemical reaction is how fast the reactants are changed into products.
One of the slowest chemical reactions is the rusting of iron and chemical weathering.…read more

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Increasing Concentration
If a solution is made more concentrated it means there are more particles of reactant
knocking about in the same volume of water
This makes the collisions between reactant particles more likely.
Smaller Product
If one of the reactants is a solid then breaking it up into smaller pieces will increase its surface
This means the particles around it will have more area to work on so there will be collisions
more frequently.…read more

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Volume of Gas Given Off
This involves the use of a gas syringe to measure the volume of gas given off.
The more gas given off during a given time interval, the faster the reaction.
A graph of gas volume against time could be plotted to give a rate of reaction graph.
Gas syringes usually give volumes accurate to the nearest cm3, so they're quite accurate.…read more


megan barrett

this is so good thank you sooooo much ***


Do we need to include quotes when doing from the gospel? o;?

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