Slides in this set
· 1) Our behaviour is influenced by the structure of our
brain- if one area of our brain is affected e.g.
hippocampus, then the way we behave could have been
altered e.g. memory.
· 2) Our behaviour is influenced by neurotransmitters- the
neurones in our brain transmit signals between other
neurones. This controls the way we behave and
consequently this means that our behaviour is already
· 3) Our behaviour is influenced by our genes- our genes
are given to us and shape our characteristics. These
characteristics influence the way we behave e.g. having
trouble controlling our anger or being very organised.…read more
· G.A.S aka General Adaptive Syndrome was created by Selye in 1956.
Selye argued that the stress response in humans and animals has a
biological basis. The G.A.S. operates through three sequential stages.
· Stress occurs when we are put into a situation that we can not control e.g. if
we were going to be stabbed. The events that make us stressed are called
· Selye believed that animals and humans react in similar ways when under
· In an experiment, he used rats and put them under stress, he used certain
hormones to change certain aspects of the rat's behaviour and he also put
them under physical stress e.g. making them run in a wheel for a long time.
· He found that the initial changes were the increased breathing, pulse and
blood pressure rate, dilated pupils and diversion of blood away from the
organs and muscles. These also prepare the individual for an emergency,
such as fleeing danger or engaging in a fight.…read more
Stage 1- Alarm Reaction
· The immediate reactions occur in the nervous system- specifically messages from the sensory
organ that detects the threat are rapidly transmitted to the brain and the sympathetic part of the
ANS is activated. The bodily changes caused by the sympathetic activation help us for action.
· For example, faster heart rate and breathing supply more oxygen and redirecting blood to the
muscles assists this, so we are more likely to have the energy to fight or runaway.
· In addition to the response of the nervous system, the endocrine system is also activated. This
occurs when the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) stimulates the adrenal glands to produce
adrenaline. The gland's hormones are slow releasing but last longer than the SNS'. This allows
the defensive reactions to be maintained in the face of danger.
· If th ethreat subside, the parasympathetic part can return the body to normal…read more
Stage 2- Resistance
· If the danger persists, the bodily state can't be
maintained by adrenaline. Other hormones such
as cortisol and thyroxine must be activated for
the body to defend itself.
· The key hormones released at this stage is
cortisol (released from the adrenal cortex) and
· If this persists for very long time, months or
years, certain parts of the body shut down and
will probably never function again normally…read more
Stage 3: Exhaustion
· Selye found out about this stage because of the
way the rats reacted. After a long period of time
under severe stress, the rat became sick and
· One significant change when the body is under
stress is the impact it has on the immune
system, after the stressors have been there for a
long time, they no longer work effectively or
efficiently. When the immune system no longer
works properly it has been found that your are
more likely to experience asthma attacks, more
severe allergic reactions etc.…read more